1. Hello Doctor I am 45 year old female recently I have been having paiin my left knee, I can walk without pain but when i sit or lie down and proceed to get up my left foot pains a lot when I lie down and streches it out my knee makes a loud crack what is the cause of this pain and what can i doe to ease it?

The pain could be due to osteoarthritis changes of the knee joint. Most important to prevent symptoms of inflammation, is to reduce stress on the affected joint. Reducing weight if you are overweight would be an initial step in the management of your symptoms. Avoid stressful physical activities that overload your knee joint. Anti inflammatory medications like ibuprofen, naproxen, acetaminofen are usually recommended. Steroids may be used in severe cases for relief. You may visit a physiotherapist for exercise therapy to strengthen the muscles and improve the range of motion of the affected joint.

2.
Hi my girlfriend wanted to try sticking something down the eye of my penis and I (stupidly) agreed. Needles to say it hurt like hell, and I think she scratched the inside of my penis as it stings badly when I urinate. My concern is will this heal naturally or do I have to front up to a doctor which I do not wish to do. There was a tiny bit of blood when she first pulled it out but I can pass urine and there is no blood Nowetc it just stings. It's only been 2 days so should just give it a week or do and see how it goes?

You may watch out for a couple more days, for it to heal. You need to make sure that the area is kept clean to prevent any chances of infection. Also increase your water intake to dilute the urine and flush out any infection if present. If the symptom of stinging does not improve, you should visit your doctor for treatment.

3.
What in the world is this thing? I've had it for a few years and I'd just like to get rid of it. I'm positive it's a cyst but I don't know if I can drain it myself, or if it would just fill up again. It's located towards the end of my forearm, painless, smooth, and has never caused a problem, other than being annoying. I have a similar one on my other arm. Can I drain it myself? By the way, I have no idea if this image has uploaded successfully.


From the image it looks like a lipoma or a fatty lump. Lipoma is a harmless swelling that occurs beneath the skin and is formed of fat or adipose tissue. You need to visit your doctor for its removal and do not attempt to remove it by yourself. Surgery, liposuction and steroid injections are the options available for its removal.

4.
Hi, i didnt know until 5 weeks ago, but i am 7 months pregnant and only 14 yrs old. i didnt realise so i was still having sex with my boyfriend. eve if it was anal sex would it injure the baby?

Sex during pregnancy is not contraindicated during pregnancy, as far as you are comfortable and the implantation of the placenta is not in the lower half of the uterus (i.e. a condition known as placenta previa), which may increase the risk of bleeding and other complications.

5.
I recently had sex after which i found blood in my urine...it was rather rougher than usual. i also had a contraceptive pill 2-3 days before that...what does this mean? should i be worried about blood in my urine?

The blood may be due to friction injury or abrasion in the area. However, if the bleeding continues you need to see your doctor at the earliest. Usually healing may occur without treatment, but you need to maintain proper hygiene and increase water intake to prevent any chances of infection.

6.
Hello Dr. 1st. i'd like to thank you so much for this amazing helpful page. my problem is that i got infected withe HSV2, tow months ago and i started taking the zovirax tablets this month, but you know the The psychological impact caused by this disease, so i asked my Dr. about a cure for this problem he told me that there is no cure for STDs but there is something might be helpful for my problem its a vaccine used for cancer patients,called (Resan)which strengthens the immune system. So my question is : should i go for it? could it be helpful? What are the chances of success of this vaccine? what are the informations that i should know about it? thank you so much for your time Dr. , i appreciate your answer . Dina, 22 years old.

Resan contains imitators of tumour antigens, which when administered would stimulate production of anti tumour immunity in the body, to reduce the chances of malignancy in those with known cancer risk. This vaccine is used as an adjunct to cancer treatment and may not be suitable as a general immunity booster. Thus it may not be beneficial to improve general immunity for the prevention of herpes lesions. Proper nutrition and a healthy lifestyle is the best way to maintain your immunity and stay healthy.

7.
My partner and I have been together for almost 2 yrs now. I have always had an HIV test proformed at my annual physical. I have had a few parners in the past, and have no reason to think that I may have HIV. Is it still necessary to have the test done each year, knowing that we are only having sex with eachother, or is it somethign I should still have routinely done?

HIV testing is usually indicated if there are chance that you have been exposed to the infection or your susceptibility to acquire infection is high due to low immunity, at work or due to other disease conditions. If you and your partner are in a mongamous relationship with each other and there is no suspected previous exposure to HIV infection, you may not require to take the test routinely.




8.
When can you tell the sex of a baby when you are pregnant?

You may get to know the sex of your baby by 18 to 22 weeks of pregnancy via ultrasound. There are other invasive methods that may be used much earlier for the diagnosis of sex of the baby like amniocentesis and chorionic villous sampling.


9.
Dear Doctor, Approx 52 hours ago, my friend (age 40 years) took 30 tablets of 500mg paracetamol. He went to a hospital in 90 minutes. He was provided saline water orally multiple times (approx one and half litres) to induce vomiting, he vomited multiple times, initially noticeable quantity of paracetamol particles were observed and finally the vomit was clear. He was under observation of 4 hours with no other medication or tests. During that time he experienced feeling chill(hot,cold), slightly feverish. He left the hospital and vomited once more which contained primarily bile. On that day he had only liquids with no problem, tried to eat a biscuit but vomited it. There were no other symptoms. Next day morning (24 hrs) his excretion (stools) were blackish and stinky, during day 2 (24 hrs onwards) he was able to eat light food without any nausea or vomiting. Say2 (48 hrs) stools were normal color though softer then usual. He has been normal after that with no discomfort. As mentioned he is at approx 52 hours now. Researching the net has caused substantial anxiety in me though he is calm and confident nothing will happen to him. Attempts to convince him to undergo examinations have failed. Grateful if you could advise on his current risk assesment. Will he be fine in the coming hours,days? is there a high probability of his developing complications or worse? Please help

Maximum toxicity due to paracetamol overdose occurs within 4 days following the ingestion of the drug. If timely treatment has been received, full recovery may occur. However you need to watch him for the next couple of days, until the toxic effects of the overdose in the body is completely removed. Your friend may take a blood test and get his liver function tested to rule out any toxic effects on liver.

10.
Hi, I am am 29 years old and have had a constant tremor or shake in my hands since i was in high school. It is not anything that keeps me from doing my job but at times it gets worse than others. Mostly it is not noticeable. But lately(the past year or so) i have been having pretty nasty cramps in my legs. My doctor prescribed Mirapex for restless leg but i am not sure that is the issue. I am starting to think that the legs and hand shaking are somehow related. I have been taking a Statin for cholesterol, but the cramps started before i was taking them. So I don't think that is causing this. My toes tend to fall asleep sometimes while sitting down. Should I see a Neurologist? Thanks Justin Ott

There could be a possibility of vitamin deficiency mainly vitamin B12 deficiency. You may get your B12 levels checked to rule out this deficiency. You need to concentrate on a healthy nutritious diet to improve your symptoms. If any vitamin deficiency is found, taking supplements would help improve your symptoms. You may consult a neurologist if no deficiency is found and symptoms continue.


11.
I have tingling and numbness on my calves and thighs but all my tests( MRI AND EMG) are normal? What could be wrong with me?

You may have developed Vitamin B12 deficiency, due to only veggie diet, that may produce such symptoms. You may want to get your B12 levels checked to rule out deficiency. You need to have a healthy nutritious diet including dairy products, meat, fish etc. or you need to include fortified foods and nutritional yeast products if you decide to continue on a veggie diet along with vitamin supplements to improve your symptoms.


12. Hi, I had blood in urine 3 weeks ago then I visited to the local doctor. The doctor took my blood and urine samples and after a few days told me that I have UTI E-coli bacteria infection which is causing blood. The doctor prescribed antibiotics for 5 days. After using medicine the blood from urine was disappeared. Now after finishing my medication I am feeling the little itching and burning in my genital area. What you think the reason? What I should do next? Best regards, Aisha


It may be possible that your UTI may not have cleared completely and require a longer course of antibiotic for the cure of infection. Another possibility is that the infection may be due to kidney infection or related to kidney stones, which may require further investigation like ultrasound and X-ray examination for accurate diagnosis and specific treatment. You need to consult your doctor again for further treatment.
1. We have a 25 month old child who was diagnosed with an ear infection and was perscribed amoxillin, we are having trouble administrating him his dosage. We tried forcing it by holding his nose but the amount is too much (11ml),we tried mixing it with his yogurt,milk,juices but he seems to realize it and refuses to take it. he has no apetite and it makes hard for us to mixed with his food. Are there any other alternatives if not what do we have to do. Thank you.

Kids are known for a hard time when it comes to medicines. It seems that you have already tried many of the common options to make your child swallow his medicine. A few other options include, getting your pharmacy to flavour your child’s medicine to his favourite taste, mixing it just a small amount of chocolate milk, pudding or his favourite food. If these tricks do not seem to work either, you may discuss other options with his doctor, who may prescribe a better-tasting antibiotic made by a different company or may consider intravenous administration of the medicine, depending on the severity of his symptoms and disease condition.

2. Hi, my wife may have Chlamydia, we are not sure yet. She is very confused on how she could have got it. I know I have been completely faithful to her, and even in the darkest part of my heart I have a hard time believing that she cheated on me. I saw in an answer to somebody else that you could get it from contact with sexual fluids. She works in a general practice family medical clinic and helps out with pretty much everything. She helps with holding equipment for paps for the male doctor in the clinic, labelled and sent off those samples collected, she has tested urine samples, and just generally everything that needs to be done. She has admitted that she doesn't always wear gloves. In what ways is it possible that she could have got it, if one of those samples had Chlamydia, and what are the odds?

The chances of contracting chlamydia or any STD increases when broken skin or mucus membrane comes in contact with infected body fluid. Although rare, there could be a possibility that your wife may have contracted this infection from work. If someone touches bodily fluids that contain the bacteria and then has direct contact with his/her own areas like eyes, vagina, mouth, abraded skin etc. there are chances of contracting the infection. However you can't catch chlamydia from a towel, doorknob, toilet seat or any objects because chlamydia does not survive outside the body.

3. Hi there, I am a 21 year old female and I have noticed that I have been getting a lot of new moles all over my body in the last year. None of them look particularily abnormal, but the fact that there are so many new ones is what's worrying me. Is the development of many new moles an indication that something's wrong?

New moles appear due to increased exposure to sun or the uv radiation. Any change in the size, colour, border etc. of the existing moles is concerning and necessitates a visit to the dermatologist for early treatment. Make sure to apply sunscreen and cover your exposed body parts when outdoors.

4. Hello, I have had one heterosexual relationship in the past that involved about 3 months of sexual behavior. The last time I've been sexually active was in December of 2008 (about 2 and a half years ago). Yesterday an ulcer formed in the genital area. i went to the doctor and asked for some tests. But the doctor wasn't sure if it could be herpes or not. I've done some research and found that symptoms usually show 2-10 days after transmitting the virus. My question is, how long can herpes be carried before the first outbreak; is 2 and a half years possible,or could it be something else?

The first outbreak of the genital herpes infection usually occurs within two weeks of exposure to the virus. However, most individuals with herpes infection never have sores, or they have very mild signs that they do not even notice. Genital ulcers may also appear with other infections like syphilis, chancroid (caused by H.ducreyi) or HIV.

5. I wanted to know how to take my cramps away without using medicine because my doctor told me to take naproxen and it is not working at all

Adequate rest, regular exercise, walking, abdominal massage or yoga may help reduce your menstrual cramps. A heating pad applied to the abdominal area can also help relieve pain and congestion. You may use ibuprofen available over the counter for cramps.

6. Dear Doctor, My husband is 55 years old, for more than 2 weeks he has been loosing blood from his anus, he doesn't have constipation, and he has never had hammeroids. Most of the time he does feel bloating in his stomach, sometimes bleeding is severe and sometimes its less, but throughout in 2 weeks it hasn't stopped,he doesn't sleeps whole night. Could you please guide me as to what is happing to him.

Bleeding may be due to various reasons like diverticulitis, ulcer, polyp or a tumour located anywhere in the rectum, colon or small intestine. Your husband needs to visit the emergency at the earliest to stop the blood loss and other related complications like shock, anemia etc. If possible consultation with a gastroenterologist is recommended for the investigation of the underlying cause through colonoscopy and other tests and accurate treatment.

7. Hi there, i had an asthma attack on saturday evening and my arms , fingers and leg are numb and tingly. i am 23 years of age, i have had many asthma attacks but what causes this numbness?

Numbness associated with an asthma attack, usually occurs due to reduced availability of oxygen to the peripheral organs, which in turn is due to the decreased oxygenation of blood related to the asthma attack. The numbness may settle down slowly with the recovery from the attack and restoration of proper oxygenation of the blood.

8. I was in a car accident on may 14, today is may 15. i had no initial pain but about 8 hours later my back started to hurt and now my back hurts from the middle up to my neck and i have a throbbing headache. i was wondering how long i should wait to see if it goes away with ibuprofen before i see a doctor.

In my opinion you should see your doctor and not wait for the pain to go away, because the pain may be due to whiplash injury and associated muscle spasm. You need to be assessed by your doctor for any deeper injury with the help of X-rays of the neck and back. Anti inflammatory medications like ibuprofen as well as physiotherapy or massage therapy may be required for the relief of pain and spasm of the muscles.


9. I had unprotected sex and i got really scared. I took 2 morning after pills(2 boxes x 1 pill) 2 days apart just to be sure. I know it was stupid. Can there be severe side effects?

You may experience changes in your periods with only spotting or delayed menses followed by a heavy flow. Other side effects may include nausea, vomiting, breast tenderness, dizziness, stomach pain, diarrhea, lower abdominal cramps and even missed periods. If you experience severe symptoms and heavy prolonged bleeding, you should consult your doctor for treatment and reduction of the blood loss.

10. Five of my friends and I went on a trip to Tennessee Mountains, where we were in the woods a bit, as well as in using the same hot tube for about 6 days. We all ate mostly the same foods, drink, etc. Two of the five of us have no symptoms at all. One day after returning, three of us have swollen axillary lymph nodes, headaches, joint pains, fever (not in all three of us). The lymph node swelling follows down the lymph track in two of us, extending into the chest. Two of us have swollen lymph nodes all the way into our chests, under the nipples. There are no noted target lesions, no known tick bites, no nausea, vomiting or GI complaints thus far. Two of the three of us have upper respiratory complaints as well. What kind of communicable disease presents in this fashion? Two of us are on Doxycycline 100mg twice a day, with no decrease in symptoms thus far. One male and two females. Is it bacterial? Is it viral? Could it be fungal? What else should I look for? What else should be done?

From your description of the location, it seems that you all might have inhaled a type of fungus or its spores found in soil and wood, known as Blastomyces Dermatitidis. Breathing of this fungus usually leads to Blastomycosis or Gilchrist’s Disease and it is not a communicable disease that spreads from person to person. Seeking immediate treatment is important for the prevention of life threatening complications including severe lung infections, abscess, breathing difficulty etc. Treatment with anti fungal antibiotics like ketoconazole, amphotericin B, fluconazole etc. may be required for fast recovery.

11. Im a 16 year old male 6ft 150lbs. i have gynecomastia and i dont know how to get rid of it, except for surgery. is there anything I can do?

Gynecomastia is enlargement of the gland tissue of the breast in males, which needs to be differentiated from simple fat deposition in the breast area due to obesity (known as pseudo gynecomastia). During puberty, the balance between male and female hormone levels may fluctuate resulting in a temporary state in which female hormones may rise more than male hormone levels leading to breast enlargement or gynecomastia. Gynecomastia due to such cause may be transient and usually corrects itself within six months to two years with further hormone stabilization. I would recommended you to consult your doctor for the diagnosis of underlying cause and its treatment.

12. I have a 38 year old son who just got the following test results. My liver alt level is 140 and should be below 45 My liver ast is 89 and should be under 36 My triglycerides are 278 and should be below 166 His GP puts him on a fat free diet and says come back in 3 months. He had a severe weight loss problem about 18 month ago and they never found out the reason. I'm telling him he needs to see a specialist for his liver problems. What do you thnk?

Elevated liver enzymes and trigycerides indicate liver disease and may require a complete clinical examination and tests to diagnose the underlying cause. Visit to a specialist would certainly be beneficial for accurate treatment and prevent further liver damage.

13. Over dosed on Paracetamol, i swallowed 10 just over an hour ago. ive vomitted, had a lot of water and eaten since. do i need to go to hospital...?

Paracetamol overdose occurs with the ingestion of about 24 to 30 standard tablets at the same time, and the main toxicity is due to its effects on liver. You may not experience severe toxic effects since you ingested 10 tablets, but it is always safe to consult your doctor for an assessment of the degree of liver damage and a blood test for liver functions, so that immediate treatment can be administered if required.

14. I have a collapsed vein from donating blood,I donated for about two weeks, about a year ago and I was wondering if there's some kind of surgery I can procede to fix that non-visible vein? I was also wondering if having a collapsed vein means that I'm more likely to have blood clots? Thank You for taking your time out to answer me.

Collapsed veins occur due to repeated injury to the vein with suction and withdrawal of the blood. It does not cause any harm, except that it may produce pain or discomfort if its large and inflamed. With repeated injury to the vein, clots form on the inside of the vein, making it narrower. Eventually the vein blocks, and the clots turn into a scar tissue which shrinks and pulls the sides of the vein together, causing it to collapse. Your body would recognise the collapse diverting the blood flow through deeper veins.

15. I am a 53 year old female. I just went for a mammogram and ultrasound because I have a small cyst on the areola near the nipple. The radiologist suggested I come back in three months for another ultrasound. What am I waiting for in 3 months? Should I go to a breast surgeon now to have a biopsy? and at the time of the biopsy can they remove the cyst if it is benign?

The small cyst formed on the areola may be a benign breast condition or enlarged ducts that sometimes develop with the approaching menopause. Clinical examination and diagnosis by a breast surgeon is definitely important for an early, accurate treatment. It could be possible to remove the cyst entirely to cure the condition. However your doctor may provide you with better treatment options, based on the type of tumour, its stage, your age etc.

1. Before going on Humira, would I have been automatically screened for HIV? And if not, after being injected once - if I did have HIV would I have felt ill? I know the only way to be sure is just to go get tested but I'm probably over reacting and feeling out if I actually already HAVE been tested.

Your doctor may not have tested you for possible HIV infection, unless you had any positive history of contacts or symptoms suspicious enough to test you for the infection. Screening for TB is mandatory before starting Humira, but screening for other infections is only recommended in cases of positive signs or symptoms. You may or may not feel ill, with HIV infection, as the development of symptoms usually depends on the phase of infection - window period, active infection, amount of infection and the strength of immunity against it. Best would be to consult with your doctor and go for HIV testing to confirm your doubts.

2. My best friend had 3 TIA's 5 months ago.. He went to the hospital and they discovered a clot in his neck. He can't have surgery because it's far too dangerous.. He's exercising and on a diet currently. But he's always weak, in pain, and has trouble thinking and doing more than one thing at once. Will this all improve? and is it normal? and also what can be done since he can't have surgery to correct the problem? Thank you very much!

A transient ischemic attack (TIA) is caused by temporary disturbance of blood supply to an area of the brain, resulting in a sudden decrease in brain function. The disturbance is transient and usually full functions return as the blood clot is removed and the blood flow to the brain is restored. If surgical removal of the clot is not possible, the clot is slowly dissolved with blood thinner medications like aspirin, clopidogrel, coumadin, heparin etc. However regular follow up and long term continuation of the medications is recommended to prevent future attacks.



3. Can I get pregnant before my first period? My boyfriend ejaculated in me, and I dont know what we should do next.

Pregnancy is related to ovulation. Since ovulation may occur before having your first periods, it is possible to become pregnant before beginning to menstruate. If it has been less than 72 hours since you had sex, you may get morning after pill, which is a type of emergency contraception and available over the counter, to prevent pregnancy. Else you may see a doctor and take the blood test for pregnancy to confirm. You need to make sure that sex at any time should be protected, as it always carries a risk of getting pregnant at all times.

4. I was listening to my daughter's heart when she was lying down and I heard it skip a couple of times. Should I be concern about it or what could that mean She is 8 years old

Skipped heart beats may be harmless, and produced due to premature atrial contraction, fibrillation, supraventricular tachycardia, Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome etc. If your daughter does not feel any symptoms of fatigue, dizziness, shortness of breath etc. it should not be concerning. However it would be best to get her examined by her pediatrician to diagnose this condition and take necessary precautions if required, to prevent development of any complications.

5. My allergies tend to trigger my asthma. What can I take to keep my allergies in control that doesn't react with my asthma medication and synthroid meds?

Allergy and asthma are commonly seen to be associated, because many factors that trigger asthma are also commonly known allergy triggers. Immunotherapy with allergy shots or medications like montelukast (singulair) and steroids, would help reduce reaction of the immune system to the allergens and control your asthma as well, with no significant interactions with your current medications. Use of anti histamine medications or nasal spray may also help. Avoidance of the triggers and steam inhalation to soothe your respiratory tract may provide relief.

6. Hello, i had sex with my boyfriend which was unprotected but he didn't cum inside me and i took a after morning pill 42 hours after. I took a pregnancy test 10 days later which came up negative. Could i still be pregnant, i'm worrying! Thanks India.

It is highly unlikely that you may be pregnant. In case you miss your next period, you may take another pregnancy test to confirm. However there could be a possibility of slight delay or abnormality in your periods due to the effects of morning after pills and stress. You also have an option to visit your doctor and take a blood pregnancy test that would diagnose pregnancy early enough and with more accuracy.

7. I am 25 year old girl, I have been facing the vague and unexplainable symptoms like shortness of breath, mild headache, dizziness, blurred vision, vertigo, sensations all over the body, numbness in extremities, sometimes nausea, stress eating, confusion, anger, memory loss and some others. I got myself tested and it was revealed that my B12 and D3 levels are extremely low and even my prolactin levels are high. I want to ask what is exactly my disease?

All three abnormalities may not be related to a single disease condition. Vitamin B12 deficiency could be due to inadequate absorption from the diet, deficiency of the intrinsic factor that helps in its absorption or any stomach disease. Inadequate exposure to the sun may lead to vitamin D3 deficiency and high prolactin levels may be related to a pituitary adenoma or prolactinoma that results in increased secretion of the hormone. Vitamin supplements as well as a healthy diet may help improve your symptoms. Control of the prolactin hormone levels would depend on the underlying cause.

8. Dose the woman give it to the man or the man gives it to the woman

Chlamydia can be transmitted during vaginal, anal, or oral sex and mothers may pass it on to their baby during vaginal delivery. Any sexually active person can be infected with chlamydia, irrespective of having sex with partners of opposite sex or the same sex.

9. What food should you avoid when you have sore throat? Also, what food SHOULD you eat when you have sore throat.

You should avoid hard, crunchy, spicy and oily foods with sore throat. Also avoid very hot or very cold beverages and dry foods like cookies, toast, dry cereals etc. You should prefer soft, semi-solid and liquid foods like soups, milk, steamed vegetable, sandwich, pancakes, soft fruits, pasta dishes, eggs, meats with gravy, custard, pudding, jellos, flat soft drinks, milkshakes are a few to list.

10. I am an adult male with a younger wife who is six months pregnant. One week ago I was diagnosed with having a pre-cancerous lesion on my right shin. The diagnosing dermatologist prescribed Fluorouracil 5% topical cream for 3 weeks to kill the lesion. When I read the warnings regarding the drug I took the pregnancy warnings to be applicable to the first person so being a male I essentially ignored them. I have had sex with my wife just once. It took place last night. My question is whether a significant amount of the drug to endanger the pregnancy would be built up in my system after two small applications per day for 7 days? I have since researched this but can only find small population studies that report no adverse exposure results for pregnant women. I will not have any further sex with my wife until well after she delivers but am ridden with guilt that I did not research this before I exposed her to my semen.

With the use of topical fluorouracil 5%, the amount that gets absorbed into your system is very low and insignificant. It may not affect your wife and the unborn baby. Serious harmful effects on the fetus may occur with oral dose, IV or topical application on the mucous membrane or vagina in pregnant women. Use of this medication in males usually cause sperm abnormalities leading to infertility or fetal anomaly. However use of proper contraception is recommended up to 6 months after the completion of the treatment.

11. Rec ently started taking blood pressure medicine along with it they gave me a diruretic, im afraid my pressure is to low now, ranging seventy over fifty. 56 yr old male 210 lbs fairly active. Thank you Bill Kellerman

If you start to develop symptoms of low blood pressure like dizziness, light headed, fainting, chest pain etc. you need to consult your doctor immediately or visit the emergency for the correction of low pressure. Your blood pressure medications and diuretics need to be adjusted or changed by your doctor to prevent low blood pressure symptoms. It is not recommended to adjust the medication on your own, to prevent fluctuations in blood pressure that may cause temporary or permanent damage of the vital organs.

12. Is it true that after you have been on a ventilator, you are never supposed to drive again. There is nothing wrong with me now. What are the known medical contraindictions to driving?

Your capacity to drive depends on the underlyling condition you have been treated for and the extent of recovery. Any marked decrease in the ability of the lungs to provide sufficient oxygen to the brain can lead to impaired judgment, reduced concentration, slow response time and physical weakness. All medical conditions that interfere with safe operation of the vehicle on road may restrict one from driving. This may include visual or hearing limitation, severe cardiac, respiratory or neurological disability.

13. Can an antihistamine and a decongestant be taken at the same time

Yes, antihistamine and decongestant combination may be used at the same time and work better together. Since the therapeutic action of either group would combat the side effects of the other to some extent, the dosage of each drug can be adjusted depending on the desired effects and dose schedule for the treatment.

14. Hi I'm Mrs. Trump. I recently got off my Birth Control to start trying. I had the couple day bleeding that is suppose to occur when you stop your BC. But about a week after that I had spotting for 2 days (2 spots of dark brownish blood than brown discharge). I am 4 days late, negative prego test. I have lower back pain, dizzy, tired, cramps for the past 5 days, sick to my stomach randomly through out the day, nipples are super tender. What should I do? Go to the doctor, wait it out, take another pregnancy test? Your input would be greatly appreciated.

Your periods are expected to be irregular for a few months once you come off the birth control until regular ovulation resumes. If you experience severe symptoms, you may visit your doctor for examination and treatment. You may also take a blood test for pregnancy which is more accurate.

15. I really just want to know what kind of Doctor do I visit for toenail fungus and what kind of treatment options exist?

You may visit a dermatologist or a foot specialist - podiatrist for treatment. Topical and oral anti fungal medication like ciclopirox, terbinafine, itraconazole etc. are the treatment of choice. Nail avulsion may help better penetration of the treatment. However recurrences are common and treatment options are usually based on the clinical type of onychomycosis, the number of affected nails, and the severity of nail involvement.



1. I am a distance runner for track and cross country, i also have asthma, i got sick 4 weeks ago and usually when i get sick, i get shortness of breathe. the shortness of breathe went away after 4 days and i felt great bun than after another 3 days, it came back. now i have trouble breathing through my noise and i have a shortness of breathe and this impacts me when im doing my runs, alot
ge: 13-18 years
Sex: Male





Current Medication: bronchodilator, albuterol, and more
Known Allergies: nuts, tress, grass, pollon, some animals



Here are a few measures for you to control and prevent your asthma symptoms and help you make a better performance on the tracks:
  • Always carry your bronchiodilating inhaler with you at all times and use it at the first sign of wheezing.
  • Use your inhaler several minutes before exercise. It may reduce your chances of an exercise-induced asthma attack.
  • Exercise at a low intensity in the beginning and gradually build over a period of time.
  • Incorporate an extended warmup and cool-down period.
  • If asthma symptoms occur, reduce your exercise intensity.
  • If you must run in cold weather, wear a facemask or scarf that covers your nose and mouth to help keep the cold air from irritating your airways.
  • Drink plenty of fluids before and during exercise.
  • A warm bath or shower immediately after your run may also help.
  • Be aware of environmental factors that can trigger an asthma attack, such as high or low temperatures, high pollen count or heavy air pollution.



2. For the past two weeks I have been experiencing the following symptoms: Shortness of breath Wheezing Cough w. mucous, esp. at night (usually thin, thick at worst times) Sore, solid lungs (it feels like I'm breathing in a mixture of pepper in cement) I have a history of asthma (I have gone through two 65-dose inhalers in eight days), I have been a smoker for eight years, and I am a carpenter. Can you help me figure out what is causing these symptoms? Thank you
Age: 19-25 years
Sex: Male


Current Medication: albuterol sulfate inhaler
Known Allergies: maple trees, cats, dogs



You may be having an exacerbated asthma attack and it would be helpful to seek medical attention before further worsening of your condition. You should always remember that if you require more than your usual or more than the maximum amount of any asthma medication in a 24-hour period, it could be an early sign of a serious asthma attack. You may require a reevaluation of your asthma symptoms and the treatment regimen, giving special consideration to the possible need for anti-inflammatory treatment, eg, corticosteroids. Triggers that may be responsible for the episode include smoke (if you still continue to smoke) or dust inhaled during your work. You should use a mask while working to avoid inhalation of the dust particles and quit smoking to avoid future attacks of asthma.


3. My husband, a relatively healthy 35-year-old, has asthma and as long as I have known him gets these bad attacks where his inhaler will not help him. It seems to start with him coughing up a bunch of post nasal drip and mucus and then he will gag until he sometimes vomits. It is worse when he has indigestion. I am starting to worry about this, he is stubborn, doesn't want to go back to see his doctor. Only medication he uses is a rescue inhaler, and he is a social smoker (5 cigarettes a week at most). Any advice you can give us? Or is this maybe not even related to asthma?
Age: 26-35 years
Sex: Female


Current Medication: rescue inhaler (ventofolin???) and Advair.



From your description it seems that the cough bouts may not be due to asthma but it could be the post nasal drip which irritates his throat and triggers cough that may end up in vomiting. You need to determine the cause of the post nasal drip to treat his recurrent episodes of cough. If it is caused by cold or allergies, he may try over-the-counter allergy medications that contain antihistamines and eliminate the excess mucous. Also available are the over-the-counter nasal sprays, that can be used for the treatment of the post nasal drip. Increased water intake helps to thin the mucous, preventing buildup in the throat and nose, and lessening the likelihood of coughing. Gargles with salt solution mixture can cleanse the back of the throat and suck on lozenges would lubricate your throat, alleviating itchiness and irritation that leads to coughing.


4. I have asthma and lately my puffers are not really doing the trick.( I take Advair 2 puffs twicw daily of the diskus as well as Ventalin 2 puffs qid prn) For the last couple of days I have been SOBOE and am coughing up pghlem usually just clear but the last few times it has had some blood in it. Sitting in the bathroom with the hot water running seems to help as well as drinking caffeine and vitamin c. I have a prescription for cephalex 500 mg 2 tabs qid, will this help, or should the dosage change at all? thanks
age - 26-35/F

Coughing up clear phlegm rules out any infection, and asthma as such does not cause bloody sputum. So in my opinion you may not need the antibiotic treatment at this time. However you may want to get your throat examined by your family doctor for any thrush infection. Since you have been on Advair inhaler, that contains two active drugs salmeterol - a bronchodilator and fluticasone - a corticosteroid which may increase the risk for thrush infection. In order to prevent thrush of the mouth and throat, you always need to gargle with water after each use of the inhaler.


5. Hello. My question about asthma is for my motther. sShe is a 60 year old woman that used to be extremely active. She has always had asthma, but never really had to use a recuse inhaler or any other drugs to control it. Last year she came down with pneumonia and this is when it all started. To sum up her symptoms, she has been in an asthma attack for over a year. Walking out in the cold brings on an attack, walking at a noraml pace, moving from room to room. She is to the point where just trying to wash dishes brings on an asthma attack because of the smell of dish soap. She has had mulitple tests done over the last few months and has just started Xoliar injections. My mother was a very strong woman and could do anyhitn g physical. Her body is weaking so badly becuase of physcial induced asthma attacks. The only thing that gives her any chance at a normal life is steriods. Do you have nay ideas what could possible help her or something they doctors may be missing.
Age: 56-65 years
Sex: Female


Medical History: high blood pressure



If the cough or other breathing problems do not respond to allergy or asthma medication this may be a sign that other conditions should be investigated. Cardiovascular disorders may coexist along with asthma, which further complicates the diagnosis. It can sometimes be difficult to distinguish one from the other, since some of the symptoms of asthma and certain heart conditions may be similar, such as fatigue, an increasing non-productive cough, difficulty breathing, heart palpitations or ankle swelling. If you could determine the allergens to which she has become sensitized, and then taking steps to minimize her exposure to them, is likely to improve her allergic asthma control.

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6. I exercise regularly and have a healthy diet. I am about 5'9 and 155 pounds and in decent shape. I've taken a test before that says my lung capacity is above average. However, I noticed that when I do cardiovascular activities I often have trouble breathing, even when I'm not exerting myself that much. I feel like this is a pretty big problem because even though I have been exercising regularly and conditioning for sports, my ability to breathe while running for long periods of time has still not improved noticeably. Even though I can keep up with just about everyone else I work out with, I feel very out of breathe after doing running exercises, when most of the other people seem fine. I experience no chest pain. I also have a deviated septum and a family history of sinus problems, and minor lung problems (nothing dangerous), if those have anything to do with my problem. I can't for the life of me figure out what the deal is. I toyed with the idea of it being asthma but I don't get any problems at all except for when I run for a long time. The easiest answer I can think of is that I'm just out of shape, but after having done this for awhile, I feel like I should be improving. Please let me know what the problem might be and what I can do to improve it.
ge: 19-25 years
Sex: Male

In my opinion the deviated nasal could be the reason for troubled breathing. Since deviated septum cause decreased nasal airflow, you may feel out of breath at times when your demand for air or oxygen is increased,which may not be felt in normal day to day activities. You may consult an ENT specialist for the clinical examination of the nasal septum and the sinuses, and the options for the treatment. Surgical correction of the deviation of the septum, called septoplasty, is the recommended option for cure and prevention of infection of the nose and sinuses.


7. My kidney leak protein however my kidney function blood tests are normal, though I do have high blood pressure. I have had a kidney biopsy to see if it was an autoimmune problem however the doctor told me my test was fine... Instead of the kidney tissue fluorescening under the microscope he told me it was only slightly showing colours. This proteinuria started after a severe group a strep infection. My doctor says that this is not related and thinks as I get older, an autoimmune response will occur. Could this be the strep that triggered it, could it disappear or will it get worse as I get older? (I'm female 20years old)

In view to the results of the tests, you have already undergone, the cause of protein in urine does not seem to be related to the strep infection. However you have mentioned that you have high blood pressure, which may be a cause for proteins in urine, or the cause may be benign like emotional or physical stress, vigorous exercise, infection etc. You should monitor your BP routinely and make sure that it stays in control - with medications or lifestyle and diet changes or both. The proteinuria goes away once the cause is removed or treated early enough to produce any damage to the kidneys.


8. My bp is high at around 150 95, is it safe for me to work out?

If you have high blood pressure, the best thing to do is to listen to your body. How you feel can and should dictate the frequency and intensity of your workouts. You can definately workout regularly, but avoid intense exercise such as competitive sport, heavy weightlifting, press-ups or any exercise that causes chest pains or involves standing up quickly from the floor. Vigorous activities like these can cause a sudden sharp increase in your blood pressure that could be dangerous.Aerobics are the best group of exercises for persons with heart and blood pressure conditions. Stop exercising and rest if you develop any of the symptoms such as chest pain, weakness, dizziness or lightheadedness, pressure or pain in your chest, neck, arm, jaw, or shoulder or any other symptoms that cause concern. Call your doctor or seek emergency treatment immediately if these symptoms do not go away quickly, or if such symptoms continue to recur.

9. Hi DR. im from Egypt, 57 years 3 years ago my Liver was failed, not completely last week i do some tests in the hospital and here is the report the liver : measures 10 cm, coarse texture and bright parenchmal echogenicity. no focal lesions or dilated intrahepatic biliary radicals are seen. no evidence of portal thrombosis . impression : liver cirrhosis mild splenomegaly severe ascitis thick wall of GB hypoalbuminemia gaseous colonic distension . so .. can you please tell me what is my case now ? and what is the words in the report means ? thanks .

Coarse texture, decrease in size and bright echogenicity all signify the disease condition of the liver called cirrhosis, in which there is scarring of the liver tissue. Once you have cirrhosis, nothing can make all the scar tissue go away, but treatment can prevent cirrhosis from getting worse. Mild spleenomegaly - means increase in size of the spleen and the thick wall of the GB (gall bladder) also suggests the distension of this organ, both of which are due to the cirrhosis of the liver and show the progression of the disease. Severe ascitis - means fluid in the peritoneal (abdominal) cavity, is also the result of changes associated with your liver disease. Ascites is caused by a combination of elevated pressure in the veins running through the liver (portal hypertension) and a decrease in liver function caused by scarring of the liver. In general, above findings indicate the evidence of advanced liver disease and the treatment option of liver transplantation needs to be considered at this time.


10. What is acute hemorrhagic cystitis?

Cystitis is the inflammation of the urinary bladder. In hemorrhagic cystitis, there is red urine because the bladder is not only inflamed, but also associated with bleeding and may also be associated with pain during urination. Acute hemorrhagic cystitis may occur after receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy with drugs like Cyclophosphamide or Ifosfamide or after having the bone marrow transplant. These drugs and procedures irritate the inner wall of the bladder either directly or with the end products of these chemo drugs that are excreted in the urine, thereby producing inflammation and bleeding.


11. Hello my boyfriend has got genital warts and i have been with him for 6 month now, even though iv had the hpv vaccine im wondering if i could still get them? im quite worried because my boyfriends warts wont go, im only 17


If you have been vaccinated before you had contact with him, you may have maximum protection from the infection. But if you had the vaccine recently, within these 6 months of contact with him, you might have contracted the infection because the transmission of HPV occurs when you come in contact of the infected skin lesion and use of condoms may also not provide protection against this virus. The immune system of the infected person will eventually develop protection against the virus, preventing HPV from leaving the cell and creating lesions, or transmitting the infection to babies or partners. Most people that get an HPV infection will have it for life, but their immune system protects them from recurrences.



1. I recently had my gallblader out on Dec 7th 2010. I went to my PCP on Dec 31st where he did lab work a a flu swab, come to find out I had the flu also my liver enzyms were elevated. He wanted to see me back in 6 weeks to do more lab work and check liver enzymes. Today,Feb 16th 2011, the lab work showed that they have increased. What could cause this? Could it be the gallbladder removal?

Gall bladder removal as such should not cause elevation of the liver enzymes, unless there has been a backlog of the bile in the ducts before the removal of the GB, which is now, slowly being drained out, but this would show improvement in the successive test results. You may have developed liver infection or hepatitis, which may present with flu like symptoms. Another likely possibility is the injury to the common bile duct, that may be a side effect of the GB removal surgery. Onset of fever, jaundice and abnormal blood test results after the surgery may indicate the possibility of the injury to the common bile duct, and further surgery may be required for the correction of the problem.


2.My liver enzymes are elevated according to test. i have to go for pics.i have been drinking an excessive amount of coca cola and eating one meal a day. Would this excessive amount of coca cola have an effect on liver enzymes? the test showed i am clear on Hep A,B or C

Yes, it would, because the sugar contained in most soft drinks is high in fructose corn syrup. Fructose is metabolized differently, behaving more like fat in regards to body weight regulation. So consuming a lot of fructose, is like consuming too much fat, contributes to weight gain, obesity and deposition of fat in the body. Elevation of the liver enzymes may be due to fatty liver, a condition of deposition of fat in the cells of the liver.

3. I had liver disease last summer, everything is back to normal. Is it safe to use Viagra or Cialis?
water pills and blood thinners


If your liver is healthy with no evidence of any disease, and normal function tests, taking this drug may not cause any significant problems. But in case your liver functions are abnormal, the dose of the medication need to be reduced, because this drug is metabolized through the liver, and careful monitoring of your liver functions is essential by your doctor. So you may want to consult your doctor before starting on to this medication.

4. Hello I was wondering if you could help me I don't rEally know what's wrong with me but I find it really hard in every day life talking to others and people know this like my teacher says everyone else gets invovled apart from me I have very low confidence which makes me unhappy and I feel like a freak compared to everyone else it effects everything I do and I don't know how I can get help I'm too scarred to ask anyone or tell anyone my problems I'm not as bad as I was in middle school I used to get really paranoid and feel like everyone was looking at me in class so I would go red in the face which just made things worst Also a teacher told my dad that I should go to the doctors because she thought I was depressed but I lied to my docor and said I was fine I really need someNeed some help as I thought I would grow out of it but now I'm 18 I'm scared of it get worst leading to mental health promblems like my mum has



You have what is known as social anxiety or social phobia, which in reality is quite common. With this condition, even though you realize that your fears of being judged are somewhat irrational, you still can’t help feeling anxious. Certain lifestyle changes would help reduce your anxiety, like limitation on caffeine intake, smoking (if you do), try to get adequate sleep, have a healthy diet, practice deep breathing exercises, meditation, yoga or other relaxation techniques. You may want to see your GP for a psychiatrist reference, for psychotherapy. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) may be the best option for treatment, that may help you, change the way you think about these social situations that give you anxiety, and help you feel better and increase your confidence. Group therapy and use of anti anxiety medications may also help.


5. I'm a 47 yr old male in generally good health. 1 week ago I had very strong pain in my back (at my left kidney) while urinating. The pain brought me to my knees. I felt "blah" all week. This morning 8:30am I had similar pain at my right kidney. At the moment (3:30pm) my lower back aches. Does it sound like I have kidney stones? If so, what should I do? Thank you, Dan

There may be chances of kidney stones, but there may also be an equal possibility of other causes like kidney infection, infection or inflammation of the prostate, obstruction to the flow of urine or retention of urine for any reason. You should have your urine tested to look for any infection, blood cells, proteins etc. Your family doctor may be helpful in diagnosing the condition and provide accurate treatment or a reference to a specialist, if that is required in your case.


6. What can you take to make kidney stones go away fast?

Kidney stones of less than 5mm in size may pass through the system and eventually get excreted with urine. Increased amounts of water intake, minimum 10 glasses of water, would certainly help flush out the stone from the kidneys through urine. Recommended dietary changes include a diet low in salt and proteins. Also supplementation of the diet with foods rich in citrate would increase the ph of urine to facilitate its excretion.
Drugs like nifedipine, may be prescribed in some cases where stones do not rapidly pass through the urinary tract. For kidney stones that do not pass on their own (usually larger stones), a procedure called lithotripsy is often used. In this procedure, shock waves are used to break up a large stone into smaller pieces that can then pass through the urinary system.



7. Is it possible to have a sinus infection with a normal C.B.C?

Sinus infection may be caused by viruses, allergies or bacteria, following the block to the drainage of the sinus. A normal CBC may be the case of viral infection of the sinus, which may clear within a few days without any need of the antibiotics. Also Xray and CT scan of the head are the preferred procedures for the assessment of the condition of the sinuses, because infection usually follows the blockage to the drainage of the particular sinus leading to the accumulation of the mucus and secondary infection of the blocked sinus.


8. Hi, I got headache for almost a week now but no fever..and last night i had nose bleed.what that indicates? Thank you!

Nose bleed associated with headache may be related to the increased blood pressure or excessive stress - emotional or physical. If the bleed does not stop on its own and comes in large amounts, you need to visit the emergency for the control of this bleeding. Otherwise you may try to pinch your nose with your head tilted forward, for a few secs and release it. repeat this technique several times, and this may help stop the bleeding. You may also apply ice packs on your cheeks to do the same. Other reasons for the bleed and headache could be certain medications like aspirin, drug abuse, dry or very cold air, trauma and tumour.

9. I am taking Metropolol daily for an irregular heartbeat. Recently, the symphoms of extreme tiredness and dizziness (feeling of fainting) have increased and are most noticable in the middle of the day. They pass in about an hour or hour and a half and I am fine the rest of the day. Is this dangerous and is there anything I can do about it? It is very debilitating.

Your symptoms of tiredness and dizziness are commonly experienced side effects of metoprolol. You may try taking the medication before meals or at bedtime, to reduce these side effects.

10. My friend had a painful swollen left testicle a while back. he has been to the doctor that told him it was a result of bacteria after a week the swelling went down however his left testicle is now softer and mushy than the other. he has been having unprotected sex with his girlfriend for a month and a half and she has not gotten pregnant is there a possibility that he is sterile?

Sterility resulting from infetion of the testis is very rare. As this is a matter of concern, your friend may want to undergo a semen analysis to determine the number, shape, and degree of motility of the sperms, and if there did appear to be a fertility problem, he should be referred to a fertility specialist for treatment. But again, infertility resulting from orchitis is very rare.


11. I am a straight male, married and have no attraction to other men at all, but for a long time I have enjoyed anal play, sometimes with my wife, and sometimes solo. I am just worried that there may be risks to this. I was wondering if anal play could cause problems later on such as prostate problems, anal leakage (don't want to wear diapers in my later years) or other complications like that? I have always been afraid of asking my doctor in person about this due to the way i have seen gays treated, and to most people if you like things in your bum, that makes you gay.
ge: 19-25 years
Sex: Male



Current Medication: ibuprofen and antibiotics for bad tooth
Known Allergies: seasonal crap, capsaicin
Medical History: bi-polar, otherwise nothing major


Anal sex does expose you to two principal dangers: infections, due to the high number of infectious microorganisms, and physical damage to the anus and the rectum due to their vulnerability. Also frequent anal sex is associated with hemorrhoids, anal prolapse, leakage, ano-rectal pain and ulcers and fissures.


1. Can you get measles if you have had the mmr vaccination

MMR vaccine provides protection up to 95 to 98%, after completion of the two doses of this vaccine. Although it is unlikely for you to catch this infection, there is still a slight possibility that you may contract the infection if you come in contact with an infected person when your immunity is low or if there is an epidemic. However, in vaccinated individuals this infection runs a milder course with a faster recovery.

2. Hi there, I had Crohn's Disease for around 4 years, I am a 21 year old male. I recently had a right Hemicolectomy in 2010 to remove the section of bowel where the Crohn's wrecked havoc and caused scaring etc and in remission for the time being. Now, since the Crohn's started 4 years ago, I have become extremely pale all over my body, head to toe and can become easily fatigue. Blood tests have shown nothing over the last number of years, Iron etc have risen and fallen but nothing to alarm them. GP's and Consultants have seen how pale I am, how my nails turn blue when I am extremely tired for no reason, white marks on my nails, low blood pressure, vision fading to grey (loosing colour) and near pass outs. Any GP I have visited or the consultants I see, when I quiz on the above, I am literally fobbed off with no real answer, and handed an Iron supplement prescription which is weak at best. Diet is not poor, but not good - but I attribute that to the fact I have being pretty much unable to eat a solid meal for the best part of 3 years with out holding my abdomen in pain for days or being sick, or running to the toilet. Fitness is more or less the same as above. I am out of options, no one seems interested, so I am turning to the internet for help. Maybe even if it's some help on what I can take to my GP to make them listen. Any help or advice would be greatly appreciated. Regards, Neil

Individuals with crohn’s disease develop anemia for several reasons like inflammation or surgical removal of the bowel that leads to malabsorption and inadequate uptake of vitamins (specially vitamin B12, folic acid and iron) and nutrients. Additionally the stores of iron, folate, vitamin B12 slowly deplete in the body, leading to anemia. Also the medications used for the treatment of crohn’s disease can cause anemia. You may need to take additional supplements of iron, vitamin B12 and folic acid to correct this state of anemia, along with a nutritious diet suitable to your system.

3. Can i take gastro resistant aspirin even though i had a stomach ulcer caused by helicobactor pylori over ten years ago

In general, you should try to avoid aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) if you have had stomach ulcers, even though it was years ago. It is safer to use anotther drug in its place if possible to prevent any chance of bleeding or ulcers yet again with aspirin. If you must take such medicines, you should talk to your doctor before taking the drug, as they may recommend that you take proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), an acid blocker or may be misoprostol, a drug used for the prevention of NSAIDs induced stomach ulcers.


4. Is there any other way of contracting chlamydia if you have had no sexual contact with anyone?

You would typically be safe because the transmission of chlamydia principally occurs during vaginal, anal, or oral sex, or from an infected mother to her baby during vaginal childbirth. But any activity or contact that involves exchange of sexually related fluids may pose a risk of contracting chlamydial infection.

5. Hey i got burnt on my forehead 2-3 months ago the skin peeled and left a pink pigment scar, will this pigment return to mormal colour?? how long...cheers

Yes, your normal skin colour should return once the natural healing process by your body is completed. The pink skin layer is a part of the normal healing and it may take a couple of weeks, possibly more more depending on the size of your burn, to bring your skin back to its normal look.

6. I suffer anxiety, however, at random times during the day I seem to have palpitations, around 3 or 4 in a row, which then repeat later. There is no pain, no issue, except a constant awareness that centres around my chest region after the issue. I even breathe fine, and the heart speeds up perhaps 10 beats a minute and returns slowly to normal. My mother also tells me she suffered this at some points in her life, but not as frequently as myself. I have had blood tests within the last 6 months that have come up with 'no issues', and my blood pressure is close to perfect, apparently, however, this issue keeps reoccuring. Shall I be seeing a doctor for further checks about this, despite being diagnosed with an anxiety disorder? I am also taking medication known as 'Gonapeptyl', and am an otherwise active and healthy 17 year old female.

In my opinion, the palpitations may be due to your anxiety or fluctuations in the sex hormonal levels in your body, and you need not see a doctor unless there is a strong positive history of heart diseases in your family, in which case you may get yourself examined once in order to rule out any heart problems. Your palpitations may go away slowly as your body adjusts to the sex hormonal changes and periodic ovulation, menses and anxiety. You may want to try meditation, yoga and deep breathing or relaxation techniques to control your anxiety symptoms.

7. I have Dyshidrotic eczema based on the information I collected online. The pictures match my condition. There are very small water-filled bubbles on my palm under my skin. They're itchy specially at night. They're not that visible unless you look closer or touch it coz you'll feel a bump. I tried soaking it with salt (water) and even tried Zinc Oxide 3x a day. I always make sure it's clean. I can't remember touching anything dirty. I take a shower 2x a day. However, I bought this lotion, protein shampoo and conditioner. I really don't know the cause. The look of it freaks me out. it's so gross.

The lesions that occur in dyshydrotic eczema may occur due stress - emotional or physical, allergies, exposure to metals like chromium, nickel, cobalt and more so if you soak your hands often in water or in moisture. You need to avoid washing your hands frequently to allow these lesions to heal, and apply an ointment or cream, 2 to 3 times daily and after each time you wash your hands. To relieve the itch, you may use anti histamine medications like benadryl etc, or topical applications like calamine lotion or a steroid cream, all available over the counter for treatment.

8. I am trying to conceive and I have a UTI. Is AZO standard going to affect any chances of me getting pregnant?Or will it cause any damage? If so what do you recommend I do?

Azo standard have not been known to either affect your chances of conceiving or cause any damage to your system or your baby in case you become pregnant. It has been rated as a category B drug by FDA based on available evidences, which means that studies have failed to demonstrate any risk to the fetus during pregnancy.

9. Hi, I wonder if you can help me? My nan who is 87 years old was diagnosed with leukemia in October 2010. We didn't think she would make it to Chritsmas but amazingly she has. I don't know what type of Leukemia she has as I have to rely on information through my mum who doesn't really like to talk about it in any detail. She is staying in our local hospice on a part time basis to have blood transfusions however the regularity in which she needs these has gone from several months down to every 3 weeks. My mum is really suffering as she is almost full time carer for my nan and I am worried about her health. What is the likely outcome of this as I don't believe my nan is receiving any other treatment other then transfusions and platelets. She almost seems to be in denial that she is ill. Have you any previous experience with these type of situations please?

No single approach can be considered the standard of care in case of elderly patients. Older patients are less tolerant to the intensive chemotherapy and often have comorbid medical illnesses which result in limited cardiac, pulmonary, renal and/or hepatic functional reserve and poor tolerance of systemic bacterial and fungal infection. The best guide for the line of management in such patients depends on the condition of their general health condition and performance status if started on chemotherapy. So the treating doctors of your nan would be the best persons to judge & decide on the treatment based on her health conditions and her ability to tolerate strong medications. In such cases supportive or palliative therapy is also a good option to improve the quality of life as much as possible.

10. Never smoked, never drink alcohol, tennis everyday for 3 hours fairly healthy diet (I live in Thailand and tend to eat a lot of fresh chicken, fish, vegetables and fruit, virtually no western food such as burgers and fries) but have just had a BP reading of 179 over 100 with a pulse rate of 59. What might be the cause of such high blood pressure? I feel fine for a 54 yr old, no aches or pains etc.

This one time or an occasional, high blood pressure reading could be due to the changes in emotions status, physical activity, secondary to certain diseases, medications, anxiety or nervousness. It could be a temporary change of your BP, which may come back to a normal range with removal of any factor that nat gave triggered this change. The diagnosis of hypertension is based on obtaining similar readings on 3 or more different occasions, persistently.

11. I take the birth control Microgestin Fe 120 and have been for several months now. I have never missed a pill and take it everyday at the same time. I was recently told by a friend that there is one week each month that I am not protected. Is this true?

The last seven pills of each monthly pack are the placebo, or the inactive pills. The placebo pills are for your convenience, they do not contain hormones and are used when your expected to have a menstrual flow. They are added to remind you to start a new pill pack after 28 days. So yes one week each month you do not take hormonal protection, but that is because you do not need protection during the week you have your periods.

12. I had a mild depression. Nothing serious. So my doctor gave me prozac and then he reduced the dose to 2 pills a day(20 mg each)in the morning. I've been feeling really ok for quite a long time and I don't need prozac anymore. What is the safest way to stop taking prozac?(how to reduce dose and then quit?). Thank you...

You may want to consult your doctor before attempting on further reducing the dose of prozac and stopping it eventually. Here’s how you may attempt to do so:
If you feel fine on 20 mg for atleast five days, it may be possible to reduce the dose to 10 mg and continue the same for the next five days, carefully monitoring if any symptoms reappear due to the decrease in the dosage of the medication. If everything feels good you may further half the dose to 5 mg for the next 5 days and than eventually you may stop the medication, if you don’t have any symptoms and feel okay. If you start experiencing a few symptoms at any time during this dose reduction, you may have to jump back to the previous dose a little longer, continue on that until you become symptom free and than try lowering the dosage again very slowly in a similar manner.


Again, I highly recommend that you adjust your dosage under the supervision of the doctor who prescribed this medication to you.

1. I am 34 weeks and recently went to the doctor because I was having swelling in my hands and face. The doctor said my urine did not have high protien counts but my blood pressure was 140 over 78 and it is usually in the 110s. She also said I gained 5 lbs since my last appt which was 5 days prior. She told me not to worry about it but I am wondering if I should get a second opinion? My sister had preclampsia with her last child and I want to make sure I am doing everything I should to have a healthy baby and labor.Age: 26-35 years
Sex: Female



Current Medication: prilosec by prescription
Known Allergies: penicillin



If your blood pressure remains consistently high (above 140/90 mmhg) along with proteins in urine, you may be asked to stay at the hospital for observation and, further management would depend on various factors such as, how far along you are with your pregnancy, how well your baby is doing and how bad your symptoms are, to be able to carry forward with the pregnancy. So in my opinion, you need not worry at this time if the increase in blood pressure was a temporary reaction, unless it stays up for long and also new symptoms like headache, any changes in your vision and/or urine output, stomach pain or seizures start to develop.

2. I have seen that by taking amoxocillin doses of 500mg 3 times a day a person can cure chlamydia within 7 days. I was wondering if I took 875 mg of amoxicillan 2 times per day for 7 days if this would treat the chlamydia
Age: 19-25 years
Sex: Male


Current Medication: amoxicillian
Medical History: was just diagnosed with sinus infection, and was prescribed 875 mg of amoxicillan to be taken twice a day for 14 days



It might be okay to use 875 mg twice a day for 7 days, but amoxicillin is usually recommended for treatment during pregnancy. For non pregnant adults, recommended antibiotics are doxycycline, azithromycin, erythromycin, levofloxacin and ofloxacin. However you may take the repeat test for chlamydia, after completion of the treatment with amoxicillin.


3. I was walking to the dinner table and sat down and I had been feeling fine when suddenly I went unconscious. I woke up on the floor, one of my roommates put me there. I felt confused and scared and kept saying sorry and asked what happened. They said I was sitting in my chair when I went limp with my eyes still open. I was extremely tired afterward and was sweaty. I can't tell if I fainted or a type of seizure. What was it?

You probably fainted at that time. The symptoms of confusion, sweating and tiredness are all associated with fainting or a syncope. You may consult your doctor for an accurate diagnosis of the cause and treatment, because there can be several reasons for fainting. It may also happen that, not any reason could be found despite aggressive history and investigations. You may try to recall any body changes or any triggers that may have led to this fainting attack, to help your doctor find the cause.


4. I had sex on the last day of my period. The condom was stuck inside of me and i did not know for two weeks. Can i have a bad infection from the condom and could i be pregnant?

Condom being stuck inside is a common occurrence, but you should be careful since it carries risk for both infection that at times may be severe, and pregnancy because the semen contained in stuck condom may have seeped into your uterus, keeping in mind that the life of the sperm is approximately 4 to 5 days inside you. You may want to visit your doctor to get it checked in case some part of the condom may still be stuck inside to produce infection sometime later.


5. My husband won't talk to a doctor about this because he is embarrassed by it but it bothers him deeply. He has two problems sometimes he can't get errect at all and others he can but doesn't last more than a minute literally. We know he is overweight at 209lbs and 5'8" and he has elevated cholesterol. The doctor he normally sees said it's not horribly high but slightly elevated so he should watch his diet better. I help with that since I cook. He is now going to be my workout partner to help himself loose weight as well as me. Though doing all this for over a year now and nothing seems to be helping. Is there anything we should consider trying that might help this problem? My Husband is 34 years old
Current Medication: He is on pravistatin to reduce cholesterol.
Known Allergies: none
Medical History: some plaque build up in arteries but cardiologist said nothing major yet. Elevated cholesterol, and overweight

Emotions like stress, unhappiness and depression can all play an important part in erection problems along with other underlying conditions or injury that could be the cause. Pravistatin is also capable of producing this as a side effect, so it would be beneficial for him to talk to his doctor regarding his erection problems. Here are some diet and lifestyle changes that might help him lower his weight and cholesterol levels for better outcomes. He may try diet modification with plenty of fruits, vegetables, whole grains and fish- all of which promote heart health along with more soluble fiber, found in oatmeal, beans, fruits and vegetables. Cut down on fat and cholesterol from meat and dairy products as much as possible. Also avoid alcohol and smoking if that is the case, and continuation of the workouts would surely help with time. Your husband may want to try walks, jogging or bike riding if possible, for at least 30 mins and twice or thrice a week, to help with his weight reduction and heart health.


6. I am taking 25mg viagra for ED . I cstill cannot keep an erection through intercourse. Can i take two 25mg of viagra to see if that works, before i ask my doctor for a 50mg prescription of viagra. Thank You
Age: 46-55 years
Sex: Male


Known Allergies: none
Medical History: Asthma, COPD High Blood Pressure, High Chlorlestorol




In my opinion you should not try the increase in dose by yourself, since you have history of other health conditions like asthma, COPD and high blood pressure that may be affected with the increase in the dose of Viagra. You may first want to consult your doctor for his opinion on the safety of this drug in your case.


7. What does blood in my muscu mean? I also have a sore throat

Blood in mucus refers to the presence of blood in the phlegm that is produced in conditions like sore throat, coughing, cold or allergies. Since you have a sore throat, the blood may be due to the irritation of the throat due to the infection of the throat, and is usually very little and occasional, that stops on its own. If it comes in large amounts you should immediately visit the emergency for a prompt treatment.


8. I am currently on the birth control pill Levora, and I am on my third cycle. I have a really hard time remembering it take it at the same time every day and the time i take the pill every day usually varies by about 3 to 4 hours, how much will this affect the effectiveness of my birth control?
Age: 19-25 years
Sex: Female


Current Medication: LEVORA



It is considered better to take the pill same time everyday so that you do not miss any pills in between and you have maximum protection. The time of your pill is not of much concern, as long as you take the pill each day, but it is best to take it the same time like when you brush in the morning or at bed time or you may select any particular time or activity of the day that helps you co relate and remind you of the pill.


9. What time of the day is best to take medication and once in while I have a couple of beers after work is this bad thank you

The best time to take any medication depends on various drug factors, disease conditions and also your body type. For example the group of drug, its form,dosage, the condition its been used for, the severity of your symptoms, your body’s temperature, immunity, hormones etc. So the best time for you to take the medication is as recommended by your doctor.
You may have 1 beer per day without any bad effects on health, in fact it may help reduce the risk of stroke and heart disease, increase the good cholesterol and anti oxidant level in your body. Also drinking more than one beer or any alcoholic beverage per day can put too much alcohol in your system and that isn't good for you. So you may drink 1 beer per day and not all seven beers in one day per week.



10. Im 23 years old and I have been getting major headaches when I am exposed to bright light such as sunlight, florescent lights, and even my computer screen. Any time I go outside, I squint until my eyes are almost closed. My eyes also feel dry at times, although it isnt as often as I get headaches. What is causing my eyes to be sensitive to light and dry?
Current Medication: depo provera

You may probably be having migraine headaches, which is a common cause, that can be triggered by a number of factors among which bright light is also one of the triggers. Other reasons for the light sensitivity include any infection or injury in the eye and excessive use of contact lenses or badly fitted contact lenses. You may want to see your family doctor for an initial assessment of your symptoms and diagnosis for further treatment.


11. What do I do If I have a Postive home pregnancy test, but a negative urine test from the hospital?

A negative result on urine test can mean that you are not pregnant or more so that you may have taken the test too early or it may be a technical error. In my opinion you should go for a blood human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) hormone test, which is more reliable and accurate for the detection of pregnancy.


12. I havr recently begun experiancing shortness of breath and chest pain on my left side. I went to the ER they admitted me and said that I had the flu,although I had no symptoms at all. After the condition stayed for a month I went to Mayo Clinic and they tested my heart, lungs, and said that I have no limitations. I still have the problem, where should I turn next.
ge: 46-55 years
Sex: Male


Current Medication: Coumadin for previous PE Simvastatin Fluoxitene
Known Allergies: none
Medical History: Past PE 2005 Spiral fracture Rt tib fib



The pain seems to be from the breathing muscles of the chest on your left side. This muscle pain could be related to any kind of stress and you may want to try some breathing exercises to relax your muscles and relieve this pain. Take deep breath, hold it for a few secs and than slowly let it out. tTry this exercise several times a day and it would help. You may visit a physiotherapist in case you feel no improvement in your symptoms, for an opinion and treatment.

13. Hi. I went out a couple of months ago without gloves and it was very cold indeed. My hands were really red afterwards and were really cold.I tried to get them warm. I had pain and stiffness in my joints for a while. When its not cold i'm okay. But if its cold I have pain for a few days in my hand. Now whenever I go out in the cold I have pain in my fingers, wrist and hand. It feels as if the inside of my fingers and hand is swolen and my fingers hurt if i try to stech them all the way. Could you tell me why please?
Age: 19-25 years
Sex: Male


Current Medication: Vitamin D and Calcium supplements
Medical History: Osteomalcia



The injury to your fingers due to cold is a common type of cold weather-related injury that develops several hours after exposure to extreme cold and usually last for several days to weeks. Though your fingers may remain sensitive to the cold in the future, there is usually no permanent damage. Always keep your hands dry and warm when exposed to cold weather, and avoid wearing tight fitting gloves or clothing as it may decrease the circulation. If you feel no improvement in the soreness of your fingers you may want to consult your doctor for an examination.

13. I am a competitive swimmer, so I am very dependent on my legs to give me extra power when I swim. But recently, I took part in a running marathon that consisted of going uphill and downhill. At the end of the 18.26 minute max effort and timed run, I realized my pains in my knee. I felt sharp pains and often numbness. Also, I realized that there was swelling at the back of my knee. I don't know what I should do. This knee pain is effecting the way I swim, especially when I do Breaststroke kick because it hurts.

Knee swelling and pain is very common in runners. It may be due to an injury, or overuse of the joint or a Baker’s cyst which is a small lump or swelling behind the knee. For mild swelling or pain, you may opt for over the counter anti inflammatory medicines or pain killers. You can apply ice packs or hot packs, ointments, balms, etc. which can help reduce the pain and swelling behind knee. You should also provide sufficient rest to the joint and avoid rigorous physical activities which might lead to increased pressure on knees. If it is the Baker’s cyst, it may heal on its own and no special treatment is required.




1.What degree of a temp. should i worry of my 3.5 year old son.
Ans: Temperatures above 38°C (100.4°F) rectally are considered as fever. The risk increases when the temperature rises above 38.9°C( 102°F) for children. You can administer childrens tylenol or advil by the recommended dosage, a sponge bath with warm water will also help reduce the fever. You should also encourage him to drink clear liquids to keep him hydrated. In case the temperature rises above 102°F you should take your son to an Emergency Department for immediate treatment.


2.Hi I have had a cough that bring up balls of flem since christmas. Im couging all day and when I breath you can hear the mucus in my throat and chest.
Also I get dry eyes, throat and skin with it. It almost feels like Hayfever symtoma. I drink at least 3 -4 pints of water a day and very healthy with my diet
and exercise so i should be hydrated. My GP has given me Amoxyillin which I have been one for at 2 months 500mg. I started with a lower dosage and
it has had no effect so I have stopped taken it. Just don't think it is good to be taken anti biotics for so long? I have had my flem analyst and it did not
show anything apparent. I used to get a slightly high temp on occasions when I first had the symtons. Any help would be appreciated. Many thanks
Age: 26-35 years Sex: Male

Ans: Cough with flem or the productive cough, has various infectious and non-infectious etiology like the viral, bacterial lung infections,
environmental allergens(like dusts, pollens, pet dander, particulate matter, industrial chemicals and pollution but cigarette smoke is by far the most common), bronchitis, emphysema, asthma or may even be due to other medications.



3. When is a girls ovulation according to her period
Age: 13-18 years Sex: Female

Ans: Ovulation typically occurs on the 14th day in a 28 day menstrual cycle.The duration from the ovulation to the ocurrence of the next cycle, called the luteul phase is consistent, and of about 2 weeks duration, irrespective of the variation in the length of the menstrual cycle. It is the pre-ovulation duration that varies. So you can determine the ovulation period by subtracting the length of your luteal phase from the total length of your typical menstrual cycle. For example, in a 35 day cycle, ovulation would be around (35 - 14) days = 21st day.

4. I woke up this morning and noticed I was getting a cold sore.. I took Valtrex right away and started to apply campho phenique.. then after a couple
hours I was able to get abreva and have been applying that. I was wondering if it would be a good idea to pop the cold sores and if that would help
them heal faster?
Age: 26-35 years Sex: Female
Current Medication: Valtrex Abreva

Ans: Cold sores are caused by herpes simplex type 1 virus and are destined to heal once the virus becomes inactive. There is no sure cure. Blisters is the infective stage of the virus and popping would could further spread the infection. Valtrex and abreva is the right treatment and will help you control the symptoms and heal faster.


5. My mother is a diabetic who maintains her sugar balance on a regular basis. She is recently suffering a flu and her GP has prescribed her the following
medicines: PROVENTIN SILVER CALCIN D COUGH SYRUP FANADYN 180 MG TABLET: MONTAIER 10 MG I was wondering, are the
medicines suitable for her to take? Also she was told by some of her friends that calcium and vitamin should not be taken at the same time. Is it true?
Age: 56-65 years Sex: Female

Ans: Diabetes control may not be affected by the above mentioned drugs provided your mother is not allergic to any of these drugs. Calcium should not be taken alongwith iron because the drugs may interfere with each other when it comes to absorption. Thus, in case her vitamin supplement contains iron, she should probably avoid taking them at the same time. But if it contains vitamin A, C, E, D, magnesium and no iron, than the vitamin supplement can be taken together with calcium because these elements enhance calcium absorption..

6. Okay so, I masturbated three days ago and got some sperm on my fingers. I then risned it off but didn't rub my hand together or use any soap.
About two hours later,I fingered my girlfiend. The past two days,she has had a small stomache ache and head ache. She usually has these but it really
worries me. Is there any chance she could be pregnant?

Ans: It is highly unlikely that she may be pregnant from the acts you have mentioned. Many factors such as timing, the amount and the depth of deposition of the sperms are equally important aspects and play together to create a pregnancy! I Hope this helps.

7. I am a right hander and my wrist seems to feel slight pain when I flex my wrist up and add pressure on palm. For example when doing open hand pushups
or push my self up from any position. I also have frequent clicking sound on the right wrist after doing heavy activities, like gardening. I think the slight
pain started about 6 months ago when I started martial arts. I focus a lot on bag punches and palm strikes. I have punch the wrong way sometimes, but
have never encounter any servere pain that alerted me of anything serious. I did get a small swelling and slight sore without any discoloration that only
lasted a few days. I visited the physiotherapist for 3 times, four weeks after realising the issue, and was given ultrasound treatment, but nothing seems to
work. I have stop going to martial arts for 4 weeks, but the discomfort is still there when I flex and put pressure. Do you know what is wrong? All up, its
been about 5 months that I have this symptom.
Age: 26-35 years Sex: Male

AnsYou have probably suffered an injury to the ligament in your wrist. Ligament injuries usually cause pain, mild swelling or bruising at the time of injury. All the symptoms may subside but the pain may continue. I would suggest that you consult an orthopedic specialist, who may order an X-ray or an MRI of the wrist for assessment of the degree of injury and relevant treatment with either a splint or a cast, or your injury may involve a surgical repair.

8. Hello, I suffer from constant mood changed throughout the day. They are not excessively obvious but for instance: I can be very funny and positive
with my friends, but suddenly my emotion drops and I become pessimistic, and get stressed easily with work. I have also noticed that I have stopped
going out in the weekends, and avoided meeting with people, I have started to just keep myself company. Does this mean I am bipolar? Please help
Age: 13-18 years Sex: Female

Ans: Bipolar disorders are more common in families with similar positive history. Symptoms greatly overlap with those of emotional fluctuations and depression. Also a proper medical examination and tests are required to rule out the possibility of other conditions like epilepsy, thyroid disorder, brain injury, or any other physical health problems that can manifest bipolar symptoms. I suggest that you consult your family doctor, who may assess your symptoms and if required, refer you to a psychiatrist for a proper medical examination, diagnosis and treatment.


9. We are wanting to start a family. I was diagnosed with hyperthyroidism and had to get radioactive iodine treatment for it. I have been on synthroid now
for about 7 months and am so close to being in the normal range. Once I hit the normal range (I belive they are wanting me to be at 3.0 TSH)I am
wondering if I can go off my birthcontrol right away? We are excited to plan a family and have been waiting 1 year to try since my thyroid issues.
I really want to go off the pill and I hope it is safe do so right away?
ge: 19-25 years Sex: Female
Current Medication: Sythroid 125mg Yasmine 21 Dalacin T 1% Nasonex
Known Allergies: Seasonal
Medical History: Hyperthyroidsm now have hypothyroidsm

Ans: Pregnancy should be avoided for about 6 months to one year after the radioactive treatment. Also uncontrolled thyroid disease may cause abortions,prematurity and growth restriction of the baby. I would suggest you to wait and let your thyroid hormones stabilize at the normal range for a couple of months before attempting to start your family. All the best!


10. I already had my period this month which lasted about 6 days and was regular flow. I stopped for 5 days then started spotting which last 7 days and then
my period started again and is regular to heavy flow. I took a pregnancy test and it was negative. Ive had a bit of nausea and generalized weakness
along with it. Prior to this my periods have been regular every 28 to 30 days. I just turned 30 in jan. what could be the cause?
Age: 26-35 years Sex: Female

Ans: here are various causes which disturb the natural chain of hormonal events that manage menstruation. For example - stress, tension,
ingested medications and caffeine, poor nutrition, smoking and extreme alcohol intake. It is normal to have some nausea, headache and weakness during these hormonal changes. Try to avoid stressors, smoking or alcohol and eat healthy to maintain your cycles. If you are trying to get pregnant or if your menstrual cycle remains irregular the next month, consult your gynecologist for further investigations and treatment.
1. When I was 17, I am now 23, I had a mass on my left ovary which was removed becuase it was coupled with an elevated CA 125 level of 228. The doctor could not conclusively give me a didiagnosis as there were many variables. I have a history of ovarian and breast cancer in my family and have researched my risk factors of developing cancer. I am concerned and not sure if I should get further testing. I get my regular checkups and paps but is there more testing I should get?
Age: 19-25 years Sex: Female
Current Medication: prenatal vitamins
Known Allergies: pollen, cats, cockroaches, mold
Medical History: left ovary removed, appendix removed due to felathils, gall bladder removed due to abdominal pain. 1 miscarriage, 2 live births and currently pregnant with third baby


Elevated CA 125 and Risk of Ovarian and Breast Cancer

A positive family history of ovarian and breast cancer certainly increases your risks for cancer. CA 125 is only useful during and after treatment follow ups, because it is eleveted in many benign conditions including pregnancy, normal menstruation, cysts, endometriosis, etc., which is why it cannot be used primarily for the screening of ovarian cancer.
Ovarian cancer is sometimes referred to as a silent killer, it does not produce sufficient symptoms for its early detection. Tests like CA 125, ultrasound, may be helpful but not confirmatory for screening this cancer. So it is best to follow regular gynecology check ups to help with early detection of possible cancer.
However for breast cancer, mammograms are an effective screening procedure. You should also self examine your breasts regularly for any changes in the consistency, lumps or secretions from the breasts. An annual breast examination by your doctor is also recommended for early detection.



2. Hello Doctor, I have had a problem sine I was about year 6- 7 where I am extremely afraid of sharks, it's not all sharks just the great white. I am now year 10 and when ever I see a picture of one I panic and I can't look at it, and most of the time I run away. I am the same with movies in fact - worse. I am not 100% sure if I have done this to my self as my friends showed me a movie of jaws before they turned off the lights and left me alone in the pool at night saying It was infested. I am worried what this is doing and how it is effecting me as I once loved swimming deep in the beach waters now... too afraid to even go out past my hip level. Please help!! regards. Holly

Fear of Sharks in Pictures - Phobia

Traumatic events often trigger the development of persistent, irrational fears of particular objects or situations which is referred to as a phobia. Phobias occur in several forms, and involve fear of objects or situations, commonly including animals, snakes, water, closed-in spaces or flying in an airplanes. People with these specific phobias are often so overwhelmed by their anxiety that they avoid the feared objects or situations.

You seem to have a shark phobia and it is now affetcing your routine activitiy. You may want to visit a psychiatrist for treatments like behavior therapy or exposure therapy which help patients to gradually become more comfortable with feared situations. Relaxation and breathing techniques are also helpful in dealing with phobia triggers.


3. I'm 17 years old and on the track team, a little over a year ago(Jan. 2010) we were warming up for practice inside and we were running backwards, and I tripped and fell. When i got up i could still walk around but with lots of pain. I still went thourgh practice, which probably isnt a good idea since I do shotput. When i got home i iced it a lot put it still hurt for weeks. And after that the pain went away accept for a few times it flaired up. then in Oct. of 2010 it flaired up, and it just constantly hurt somedays it hurt to just walk. i went to the doctor and all she did was give me some pain pills which didnt always work. and i can no longer particapate in track becasue it would hurt to much. Should i request the doctor to do some more tests? Do you know what could be wrong with my back? and how do i fix it? Please Help Me!

Too Young to have Back Pain diet and fitness, muscle pain

You probably developed a muscle strain when you tripped and fell, but your condition may have been worsened further by continued workouts and stress to the muscles without providing sufficient time for these muscles to heal completely from the trauma. In such scenerios, one should always rest the muscles for a few days before slowly starting again with stretches and gradually resuming exercises or sports activity.
Because a large amount of time has passed since your muscle injury, I would recommend that you visit a physiotherapist for evaluation of the back muscles and proper treatment. You may also benefit from massage therapy.



4.How to Treat Genital Warts? sex and beauty, genital warts

Genital warts can appear within weeks or months after sexual contact with an infected partner—even if the infected partner has no signs of genital warts.
They may go away on their own in about 3 to 5 months, but thats not always the case. Some people may have them for longer periods and may require treament to clear the genital warts.
You may visit your family doctor and discuss the many available treatment options like cryotherapy that uses liquid nitrogen to freeze the wart, laser treatment, topical applications like podophyllum resin, podophilox, imiquimod etc.
I may not be able to give you accurate information about the drug wartrol which seems to be a homeopathic medication, but you may consider speaking with a homeopathic doctor for more information. As you have tried using salicylic acid and apple cider vinegar, which worsened the warts, I would recomment that you consult with your GP before trying anything else.


5. I received a vaccination for meningitis in college approximately 8 years ago. i am a dentist and am around patients all day, and i am planning a bit of travel in the near future. should i get a booster for this vaccination or is the one i received in the past sufficient?

Booster for Meningitis Vaccination?

Vaccine for meningitis remains effective for 5 years. Most children have their first shot for meningitis at age 12, and a booster dose is required as teenagers since the effects of the initial vaccine shot would have waned off.
It is recommended that you take a shot for meningitis to protect yourself from the risks involved at work, and more so if you are to travel in an endemic area for meningitis.



6.I've been having problems with my bowel movement for the past 2 months (maybe longer or shorter). it hurts and bleeds and it also feels like i'm not done. I'm 18 and my friend told me you could get colon cancer while your this young. I'm not dehydrated! Its a little embarassing to go to the doctor about this unless I absolutly have to so I would really appreciate the advice. Thank You.

Colon Cancer or Something Else? a-z hemorrhoids

The risk of colon cancer increases with age, however about 90% of cases occur in people over 50 years of age. Screening for colon cancer is recommended routinely after the age of 50, with yearly testing of stool occult blood and flexible colonoscopy every 3 to 5 years.
In my opinion, since you have been having problems with bowel movements, you may have hard stools which may have caused strain during bowel movements. As a result, you could have developed either of the two things, an anal fissure which is cut in the suerficial skin of the anus due to passage of hard stools, or secondly, hemorrhoids may have developed due to repeated straining and increased pressure in the rectal and anal veins causing pain and bleeding symptoms. In either case you need to visit your doctor because, if left untreated, it may lead to infection and further spread, and the blood loss could produce anemia, fatigue and weakness. I would also suggest that you increase fiber intake in your diet and drink lots of fluids to help proper formation of stool and regularize your bowel habit. Follow a routine exercise plan for better results.



7. I had a c-spine xray for back pain- incidentally it showed "granulomatous changes in the lungs". What does this mean? Should I be concerned? Thanks JIll

Cervical Spine Xray Showed Granulomatous Changes in Lungs a-z lung disease

Granulomatous changes are when the monocytes (a type of immune cells of the body) attempt to wall off the particles or any antigens that it perceives as a foreign substance, and in doing so they form a small mass to contain these immune cells, any foreign particles or debris.
Such granulomatous changes in the lungs may be due to conditions like sarcoidosis, tuberculosis or be related to other autoimmune conditions llike systemic lupus arethematosis etc. The treatment option will depend on the underlying cause and diagnosis of the condition. You should surely visit your family doctor for more insight into the probable cause in your case through examination and further investigations including blood tests, TB test and scans for better details.



8. Hi Doctor. Im only young and have not had sex yet. However Iwas suppost to get my period the 1st of March and haven't gotten it yet. My mind is racing thinking about all the bad things this could mean especially pregnancy.My boyfriend and I have not had sex but we do give each other other things ( Handjob, Fingering). Could I get pregnant from doing these things. He has only fingered me before he ejaculated. But I can remember one time we did it after. I dont recall him having anything on his hands fingers before he fingered me. Im so worried and stressed and I know that only delays the period. But what can I do.. VERY WORRIED. I have been reading other sites and some say sperm dies when it hits oxygen even though thats not true. I dont know who to believe so I hoped coming here would help. PLEASEEE help

Can Handjob Lead to Pregnancy?

When a woman initially start having her periods, it usually takes up to 3 years for the cycles to become regular and stabilized. You should not be stressed out about this handjob act leading to pregnancy because conception occurs with penetration and proper deposit of semen into the vagina around the time of ovulation. It is highly unlikely that you are pregnant, and worrying may only delay your periods and make them irregular. Please remember to keep healthy eating habits with greens and fruits and follow routine exercise.

9. Is there a generic drug that is comparable to Benicar HCT? I know this drug has a patent, but I can't afford $107.00 per month for this.

Generic Drug for Benicar

Benicar HCT or olmesartan belongs to the group of drugs called "angiotensin II receptor antagonists" which help keep blood vessels from narrowing to improve the blood flow and control blood pressure. A generic is not available in the market as yet and the patent is supposed to expire in 2016. In my opinion you might want to talk to your doctor about switching over to other blood pressure medications that have comparable results and fewer side effects which may suits your situation.


10. Hi. I have been prescribed cleocin for an ingrown hair. The ingrown hair has completely resolved and I have 2 tablets left. I am about to have a blood test for platlet count because of upcoming surgery, but I am worried that having this drug in my system will make the blood platlet count decrease. Can Cleocin decrease your blood platlet count and if it does, how long until it recovers? How long should I wait after the tablets to get the test? Surgery id 5 weeks away. Thankyou.

Cleocin and Blood Platlet Count

You should complete the prescribed dose schedule of cleocin for the complete removal of the infection or else it may reappear. Cleocin does not have any significant effects on the platelet counts, and as such, you shouldn't have to wait for its effects to wear off in order to go for your surgery or a blood test.


11. 47 yr old female in good health. I have had a low grade fever (99.5-101) going on 6 months. My doctor has done blood work - basic metabolic panel, CBC Auto Diff panel, liver panel, prolactin, TSH and 24hour urine screen for cortisol. Everything is normal except Potassium is 3.4 (range 3.5-5.3) and Lymph% (Auto) is 21.1 (range 21.4-44%). Which is statistically insignificant to my doctor. I am ok with all of this, but now what? What other testing if any should we do? I have historically been 98.6. I appreciate any testing suggestions or next steps.

Unexplained Fever for Six Months a-z infection

The range for the normal body temperature is 98.2º-99.5º F. Your temperature seems to fall within the normal range, except maybe for a few instances.
You may want to go for a urine examination to rule out any chances of urine infection which could produce fever and other symptoms you may be having. Increased amounts of water intake may help flush out (if any) urine infection that could be present along with some antibiotics.



12. I am a Registered Nurse,Charge Nurse with 28 yrs in the field. Recently 4 of us were asked to give urine for a drug screen due to a medication documentation discrepancy. Mine came back positive for both Demerol as well as THC, both of which I have not had contact with. I suffer from kidney and liver disease and at the time was taking the antibiotic Cipro 2000mg a day, I had been on that for 3 days, Azo-Standard, 2 tabs 3times daily and several other OTC meds for back and kidney pain including Goody powders and Excedrin Migraine. I also take Geritol and use Afrin almost every day. I was diagnosed 8 years ago with the kidney and liver disease and have multiple large cysts on both organs, hematuria and infections frequently. January 16, 2011 I saw my doctor for a migraine and was given Demerol 75mg and Phenergan 50mg IM. Can any of these cause a false drug screen? I am very upset about these results as I have never had or been accused of drug abuse and was subsequently terminated for violation of the hospital's drug policy. My license is being questioned as of now and I cannot convince these people that I have not used these drugs! I plan to seek legal advice to hopefully reverse the accusations and get my job back. The hospital is telling other employees as well as outside people about this and my previous good name is now history. Your advice on how to handle this situation would be greatly appreciated. Thank you very much G. Swanner, RN

Title: Can the Medications I was taking cause a False-Positive Drug Screen? a-z pain


ANS: Excretion of urinary begins within hours after exposure to THC and in 72 hours usually only 50% of the initial dose is eliminated, while it takes about 2 to 4 days for demerol to clear completely from the body. Looking at the pharmocokinetics of these drugs, their positivity in the urine is highly indicative of the drugs having been in the system for at least 4 to 6 days. Demerol taken on january 16th will have been completely eliminated by now, unless you had to continue the medication for treatment under the supervision of your treating doctor.
Phenergan have no such effects. Sadly, I could not find a reason for the test to be false positive accoridng to the biological and pharmalogical basis. There is a possiblity of technical or a manual error, on which grounds you may be able to defend yourself.





13. I am suffering from back pain due to accident. Currently on pain medication. I was given pain patch to try. Besides feeling "out of it" I suffered suvere muscle pain in shoulder where patch was and muscle ridgity in my middle back, bad enough to send me to hospital. They took xrays to rule out infection and such. They found that I have bad disc now in my mid back that I never had. Can severe muscle ridgity cause a disc to rupture or herniate?

Like I said never had an issue until the problems with the pain patch?
Age: 46-55 years Sex: Male
Current Medication: Oxycontin
Known Allergies: Pain patch
Medical History: 2 level lower back disc replacement


Title: Mid Back Pain and Related Disc Problem

ANS: Heavy strain (muscle or ligament tear) of the back or falls are the likely cause of most disc problems, and as such your condition is more likely to be related to your accident.
The possibillity for a pain patch to cause such a severe strain of the mid back muscles is very minimal, especially with the patch applied in the shoulder area. In my opinion, the initial back pain you experienced may have been related to the disc being localised and flared up with bulging or herniation due to the impingement of some nerves, and furhter investigation may now have found the root cause of the pain.




14. Me and my bf had sex about two weeks ago and the thing is that we didnt know how to put a condom on and when we rolled it down it didnt wanna go so he took it off and im worried that pre cum got onto it becuase i think he put it inside out but then when we had intercourse and i stood up tthe condom slipped off but he didnt ejaculate so im kinda wondering if im pregnant alot of people say im not but i wanted to ask a doctor

Condom Slipped off Really Worrried

The pre-ejaculation fluid may contain few sperms, and also there may be the possibility that some seminal fluid may have escaped due to improper use of the condom.
Although there are very minimal chances that you may be pregnant, this possibility cannot be ruled out a 100%. If are expecting your menses in the coming few days, there is a possibility that you may have been ovulating at the time you had sex, which would increase your risk of pregnancy (assuming any fluid had escaped). Otherwise, the chances of you being pregnant would be almost nil.
You need to be careful and remember that contraceptive measures have maximum effect only when used correctly.




15. I had an abortion when I was about 7 weeks pregnant in November of 2010. I bled the day of the procedure but have not had my period at all since. Why is this and what should I do?

No Period Since Abortion Four Months Ago

Typically menstruation resumes after about 4 to 6 weeks following an abortion. If you have not had periods till date, you need to consult your gynecologist for evaluation. It is possible that there may be some tissue from the conception still present in the uterus, which could be producing pregnancy hormones and preventing menstruation. There is also a possibility that you may be pregnant again.
1. I normally eat a good diet that is low in fats, red meat, desserts, etc. I recently went on vacation for two weeks (including a cruise) and increased both the quantity of food I ate but also the fats, red meat, sugar, butter, eggs, etc. Can to weeks of eating a significantly worse diet have any effect on cholesterol levels if tested within a few days of eating poorly?

Impact of High Fat Diet on Cholesterol Levels diet fitness cholesterol

For a healthy person, one high-fat meal may not have any detrimental effect and you might be okay, but that may not be true if you’re at high risk because of heart disease. Studies have found that within 3 to 5 hours after having a very high-fat meal, the function of the blood vessels start to became abnormal, and it seems that the effect of one meal is probably gone in six hours. So if you already have a coronary disease and you eat the high fat meal, it is possible that during this period of 3 to 5 hours of increased cholesterol in the blood, you could be at a high risk of having a cardiac event. But this also does not certainly confirm that if you have a single fatty meal once in a while, you’re at risk. Conclusively, you should try to avoid temptation for high fat foods if you fat into the high risk category for heart disease.


2. I have high cholesterol along with history of heart trouble i dont eat much at all and i usually grill or bake meats i am 52 years old and very troubles of the high readings what do i need to do im on 40mg of simvastation for it i am over weight and have trouble losing it was hoping you can help me with ideas to lower my level i dont like fish was wondering if pork was good for me to eat thank you
Age: 46-55 years Sex: Female
Current Medication: simvastaton 40mg hydroc apap 350mg lisinop hctz 10 12.5 meloxicam 15mg gabapentin 300mg
Known Allergies: aprin
Medical History: heart deaease high blood pressure arthirist high cholesterol


Tips for Control of Cholestrol a-z cholesterol management

You will need to be very determined and keep daily routine of a healthy meals and exercise.
In terms of your diet, avoid red meat like steak, bacon, ham, organ meats (such as liver), processed meats (such as hot dogs, sausage or bologna). Also avoid fried foods, pre packaged foods, junk foods, whole milk, full-fat dairy products (such as cheese, ice cream or cream), candies and cakes. Use skimmed milk and yogurt. The best items are beans, unsaturated vegetable oils (such as safflower oil, olive oil or canola oil), fruits, citrus fruits, blueberries, garlic, grains, almonds, other nuts, soy, vegetables, whole grain bread, lean meat and skinless poultry. The above mentioned items things have antioxidants, vitamins and minerals as well as omega 3 acids that are known to reduce cholesterol levels in the body. High fiber foods, such as oatmeal, flaxseeds, and fiber supplements should be included in your diet because the fibres tend to bind to the cholesterol and helps clear it out from the body.
You should also exercise for atleast 30 to 40 minutes everyday. In make it easier to stick to an exercise routine, try doing exercises or activities that you would enjoy, and follow it. Examples of daily exercises you may enjoy include taking a walk or riding a bike or forms f aerobics.
With healthy changes to your diet and activity levels you should be able to loose weight and feel healthier. Remember, staying determined and following the routine will be of utmost importance to achieve the desired results.


3. I'm 22 yo guy. About 3 months ago, I noticed that my heart rate is low (56 beats per minute). I saw a doctor and he told me its pretty low but normal because I play soccer and that I should be concerned when it gets under 50 bpm. Since then, every few days my heart rate would go lower and lower until it got to 51 bpm and rarely gets to 60 bpm when rested or standing with light movements. I play soccer 3 times aweak but I'm not a top athlete. No pain or weird pulses but I know as people grow older the heart rate drops. Most people my age have a heart rate in the 60s bpm if not in the 70s. Should I see a cardiologist or wait until my heart rate drops under 50 bpm?

Twenty Two Years Old and a Drop of Heart Rate to Fifty One Beats per Minute

Athletes and young healthy adults tend to have a lower heart rate. The logical explanation for this is that your heart muscle acts similar to the skeletal muscles of the arms, legs etc in your the body. What this means is that, slowly, as these muscles get stronger with exercise, your heart would have to put less effort into pumping the same amount of blood as compared to before. Less frequency of the required pumping action by the heart means a decreased heart rate.

Athletes may have their normal heart rates ranging from as low as 40 to 60. Thus, if you have been following routine workouts and play soccer regularly, you may have a low or I would say a healthy heart rate!
You would need to see a cardiologist only in case you develop symptom like chest pain, fatigue, weakness, or any irregularities in your pulses.


4. I've been on birth control pills (Tricyclen) for about two and a half years and the last ten days I went off it (after the placebo pills). I'm wanting to keep taking the pills but I'm wondering if, because I missed so many days, is it safe to just start taking them again or is there something i need to know first?

How to Restart Birth Control Pills

You may start taking the birth control pills during any time of the cycle.
What you should note is that if you are going to start the pill immediately or within 5 days of the start of your cycle, you may not require extra protection. If you were to start the pill at any other time of your cycle, you should use an additional method of protection (condoms) for maximum protection.
In your case, since it has been more than 5 days, it is recommended that you take some kind of additional precaution for atleast the first 7 active pills because your ovulation may already have occurred and as such, you need to be extra safe.


5. I am a 44 year old african american male. Suddenly I have weakness in my left wrist and some numbness and tingling in my fingers. It is very difficult for me to hold my hand out with my palm facing down and impossible to hold anything in my hand without my wrist giving out. There is no pain. Is this a stroke symtom?

Weakness in the Wrist and Fingers Numb a-z carpal tunnel syndrome

It is my opinion that your symptoms look less likely to be related to a stroke, and more likely due to a condition called the wrist drop or the Saturday night palsy, which is caused by an injury to the radial nerve. The radial nerves stimulate muscles in the forearm which in turn allow you to raise your hand at the wrist.
The most common reason for this is an injury or pressure on the radial nerve caused while falling asleep on a chair with the arm hanging on it and your head resting on the arm, this type of scenario causes the pressure injury. The radial nerve can also be damaged by a direct injury to the nerve, or by injuries to the structures around the nerve.
Movements are restored gradually as healing of the damaged nerve(s) will occur with time. You may want to visit your doctor for a better understanding of the situation and learn some flexing exercise or a wear splint to help in the recovery.



6.Hi I have a question regarding vitamin B-12 injections. I recently found a website called trim nutrition.com that is selling vitamin b-12 injection kits. No Rx required.First off, is this legal? I contacted them and they said the products come from an FDA approved pharmaceutical wholesaler. They also said "These are water soluble vitamins only. You do not need to have blood work to track these vitamins as the body can regulate and dispose of after tissue saturation. If you will have any issues with self injection you should consider receiving your injections at a clinic. We are certified with the Better Business Bureau and have several doctor affiliated offices around the country." Second, if this is legal, they are recommending a 1000 mcg per ml injection of Cyanocobalamin once a week... Would this amount be safe or cause any unwanted side effects? Thank you very much for your time.

Vitamin B 12

There may not be any restriction on the sell of vitamin B 12 injections in some parts of the world. Selling over the website does not legally restrict anyone from buying these injections as far as its legal to buy in the location of the purchaser. They have mentioned in their terms and conditions may also have mentioned that they are not responsible for any effects incurred due to the use of any tips or products from their website. Dosage of the injectables is dependant on the underlying condition it is being used for, but for most part they rermain safe due to its water soluble nature.

Legal to Buy Vitamin B 12 Injections Online?
There may not be any restriction on the sale of vitamin B 12 injections in some parts of the world and buying these injections should be fine as long as these injections are legally available for sale without an RX in your area. Please note that the website has listed in their terms and conditions that they are not responsible for any side effects incurred due to the use of any tips or products on their website.
Dosage of vitamin B injections is dependant on the underlying condition it is being used for, but for most part they remain safe due to their water soluble nature.






7. Hi, My name is Mohammed Shariff. Two days ago, I started experiencing chest pain for the first time ever, after eating a breakfast of waffles. Since then, I've been experiencing mild-severe chest pain, usually when I eat. The pain kept me up last night, and this morning I noticed an increase in gas. No change in my bowl movements. My BP and Pulse are fine. No history of cardio problems. I do have hypothyroidism and am on Sythroid (88mg). I've never experienced heart burn before. But I do get acid reflux a lot. Usually its accompanied with severe abodminal pain and acid burps. I only have mild abdominal pain, in my upper abdomen. After taking antacids for a day with no help, I've narrowed it down to a peptic ulcer. I don't think its acid reflux,and heart burn seems unlikely. Still, i want a consult. The chest pain usually lasts 10 mins. let me know if you need anything else. thank you.

Age: 13-18 years
Sex: Male



Current Medication: Sythroid
Known Allergies: none
Medical History: history of stroke, thyroid



The pain and the acid burns seem to be due to the hiatal hernia, which is usually associated with acid reflux. this hernia is characterised by the escape of the part of the stomach through into the chest due to a weakness into the diaphram.. It may produce symptoms of pain, which may be reffered to the chest or shoulder often simulating a heart disease. treatment is not needed unless symptoms occur and then surgical intervention is usually required.


The pain and the acid burns you have could likely be due to a condition called hiatal hernia, which is usually associated with acid reflux. This type of hernia causes the contents of the stomach to escape into the esophagus and may sometimes also cause some part of the stomach to slide through or pinch into the hiatus(opening) in the diaphragm due to its weakness . It may produce symptoms of pain, which may be felt in the chest or shoulder often simulating a heart disease. Treatment is usually not required in asymptomatic patients.

As you are experiencing symptoms, you may consult a gasteronterologist for possible treatment options to get relief from these symptoms, and surgical option may be a likely option for long term relief.



8. I recentl had a leftside carotid endartectomy. Complications developed and I had 4 mini strokes and a convulsion post op. I have recently been experiencing tingling and numbness in my right hand and arm. My GP doesn't know the cause so my specialist has ordered a duplex carotd artery ultrasound. Do you have any advice please as this is worrying me?

Left Carotid Endarterectomy and Tinglingm Numbness on Right Side Now
a-z, carpal

I understand your apprehension, and things will clear up with your results of the duplex scan of the carotid artery to find the condition of the carotid artery, but meanwhile there is a possibility of your symptoms being related to the compression of the median nerve at the wrist, called the carpal tunnel syndrome. Your hand and arm may feel the tingling and the numbness in the thumb, index, middle finger and partly in the ring finger, specially in the middle of the night when the sensations are so strong that awakenss you up but it gets relieved in a few minutes with the changes in the position of the hand. This condition often corrects itself over time with only rest and motion/stretching exercise of the wrist, anti-inflammatory medication, splint or in some cases surgery may be required.

I understand your apprehension, and things will clear up with results from the duplex scan of the carotid artery, but meanwhile there is a possibility that your symptoms are related to the compression of the median nerve at the wrist, causing carpal tunnel syndrome. Your hand and arm may feel tingling and numbness in the thumb, index, middle finger and partly in the ring finger, especially in the middle of the night when the sensations are so strong that you are awakened by it, followed by relief in a few minutes by changing the the position of your hand. This condition often corrects itself over time with rest and motion/stretching exercise of the wrist, anti-inflammatory medication, splint. In some cases surgery may be required.



9. Hi, i have osgood schlatter, and i am in the United States Marine Corps and i have knee pain whenever we do our physical training, what i was wondering was should i go get my knee looked at or should i just keep running. i want to know what will happen if i keep on running and ignoring it. please help

Osgood Schlatter is a condition caused by the inflammation of the tibial tuberosity, which is a small bony bump in the upper front part of the shin bone. It is a common condition for teens who’s bones are growing, and when they engage in activities like running and jumping, it leads to irritation and inflammation of the tuberosity (where the patellar tendon attaches). If proper rest and break from such activities is not observed, there is deposition of the bone in the tendon as the growth takes place until maturity. Usually it does not produce any symptoms, but in some cases the pain may continue with activities.
In my opinion you should get your knee examined by an orthopedic specialist who will be able to advise you correctly of surgical treatment options that may be available due to the fact that bone maturity has completed for you.

10. What are some foods I can eat without lactose for my daily calcium?

Lactose Free Calcium Rich Diet

Daily calcium requirements in adults range from 1000 to 1300mgs. Lactose free, calcium rich foods include the lactose free milk, soy milk, fish like salmon, sardines, tuna, rhubarb, herring, dark green vegetables like spinach, brocolli, lettuce, turnip, fortified foods like calcium fortified cereals and juices. You may also try yogurt with active culture and cottage cheese which are low in lactose if suitable.

Daily calcium requirements in adults range from 1000 to 1300mgs. Lactose free, calcium rich foods include lactose free milk, soy milk, fish like salmon, sardines, tuna, rhubarb, herring, and dark green vegetables like spinach, broccoli, lettuce, turnip, as well as fortified foods like calcium fortified cereals and juices. You may also try yogurt with active cultures and cottage cheese which are low in lactose if these are suitable to you.



11. Hello my name is xavier im 18 and for the last 2 weeks i have been having this constant cough. its not that bad during the day but get worse when I'm home and it night time. Im outside alot for soccer for a couple hours for soccer a couple of days a week.at first i thought it was alot of mucous but now it is dry.

Chronic Cough for the Last 2 Weeks

The cough is more likely due to some kind of allergen like pollens, mold, dust etc. As with any allergy, the allergic cough cannot be cured, but controlled by avoiding or eliminating the allergen for prevention of the allergy. You may try some home remedies for the control of cough like gargling with warm salted water, steam inhalation to reduce the inflammation, ginger root or have hot milk mixed with turmeric powder. Lozenges and cough suppressants are effective measures too for dry cough as they soothe the throat and suppress the cough.

The cough is more likely due to some kind of allergen like pollens, mold, dust etc. As with any allergy, the allergic cough cannot be cured, but it may be controlled by avoiding or eliminating the allergen. You may try some home remedies for the control of cough like gargling with warm salted water, steam inhalation to reduce the inflammation, ginger root or have hot milk mixed with turmeric powder. Lozenges and cough suppressants are also effective measures for dry cough as they help soothe the throat and suppress the cough.



12. Initially, my fasting blood sugar was 5.8 mmol-l back in early October last year; I was experiencing the symptoms of diabetes and my doctor referred me to a glucose tolerance test. This test came up as being negative, and I prepared for the test according to guidelines (Eating high carb diet for 3 days prior). However, I was still experiencing diabetic symptoms and subsequently have undergone several more blood tests, another glucose tolerance test and 2 urine tests; all were revealed to be negative. Please note that I prepared for these tests correctly to avoid false positives. I am still currently experiencing symptoms such as frequent urination, thirst, dizziness, abdominal grumbling, eye irritation and unintentional weight loss (11kg over the past 5 months). My thyroid is in good attention according to TSH. Do I have diabetes or another metabolic disorder? Please help.

Not Diabetic but Experiencing Diabetic Symptoms

Frequency of urination is a very common symptom associated with infection of urine, but it seems that any kind of urine infection has been ruled out with the subsequent urine tests performed till date. However if not done urine test for urine infection should be done first to rule out any infection.
There is also an another form of diabetic condition called the Diabetes Insipidus, which has no relation with blood or urine sugar levels. In this condition there is excessive loss of water from the body, leading to the production of similar symptoms like frequency of urination, thirst etc.The water conservation power of the kidneys which is controlled by a hormone called antidiuretic hormone secreted by the pituitary gland in the brain is affected. You may want to discuss with your family doctor about the continuation of the symptoms and consideration of diabetes insipidus.

Frequency of urination is a very common symptom associated with infection of urine, but it seems that in your case any kind of urine infection has been ruled out with the subsequent urine tests performed to date. However if not done, a urine test to test specifically for a urine infection should be done first to rule out any possibility of infection.
There is a form of diabetic condition called the Diabetes Insipidus, which has no relation with blood or urine sugar levels. In this condition, there is excessive loss of water from the body, leading to the production of similar symptoms like frequency of urination, thirst etc.The water conservation power of the kidneys , which is controlled by a hormone called anti diuretic hormone (secreted by the pituitary gland in the brain), is affected. You may want to discuss with your family doctor the the fact that there is continuation of the symptoms and to consider the possibility of diabetes insipidus.


13. I was diagnosed with pneumonia two days ago by an Emegencey Room doctor. I had it a day or two days before being diagnosed. Now the phglem that is in my lungs is so thick that I cannot couph it up and breathing is difficult especially when I am trying to sleep. (prone position) I drink massive amounts of water, I have antibiotics and 2 types of puffer inhalients but nothing is breaking up the phglem. What can I do? I've also tried steam.

Help Get Rid of Thick Mucus Phlem in Pneumonia

It is important to get rid of the thick phlem because it may build up making it difficult to breathe as well as may act as a pool for infection. You may use expectorants - group of drugs that loosen the thick cough from the lung walls, and mucolytics that help thin out the phlem for better removal and expectoration, both of which are available over the counter or by prescription. Another effective way is the use of chest physiotherapy technique like tapping in order to loosen the phlem alongwith the use of gravity to help drain the cough. Try using different positions while coughing specailly sitting and leaning forward position with feet firmly pressing on the ground.

It is important to get rid of the thick phlegm because it may continue to build making it even more difficult to breathe, and the excess phlegm could act as a pool for an infection.
You may use expectorants - a group of drugs that loosen the thick cough from the lung walls, and mucolytics that help thin out the phlegm for better results. Both of these types of drugs are available either over the counter or by prescription.
Another effective method is the use of chest physiotherapy technique like tapping in order to loosen the phlegm along with the use of gravity to help drain the cough. Try using different positions while coughing, such as sitting and leaning forward with your feet firmly flat on the ground.



14. I am 20 years old have horrible leg and arm pains, for 2 and half years. mostly get it in the morning with stiffness and at night (mainly) horrible shooting deep pains that last for a minute then goes back to the regular deep aches. Im always having to stretch them out, cant stay bent for to long. Activity seems to make them hurt more at night. I think its fibromyalgia cause i have tender spots in my upper thighs and fatigue and depression. I have looked up this condition for 2 years and thats what i think it is. Do you have any idea? My doctor said my blood work came back okay.

Legs and Arms Pain - 2 years now

You may be right because fibromyalgia can produce pain at various points in the muscles of the body and often not all patients with fibromyalgia have same symptoms. Typically the blood tests and xrays may come back normal in many cases, and so in order to get an accurate diagnosis you may consult a rheumatologist for a detailed clinical evaluation of your symptoms and diagnosis. There are also support groups for fibromyalgia where you can visit for better understanding of the condition and related help.

You may be right, as fibromyalgia can produce pain at various points in the muscles of the body and often not all patients with fibromyalgia have the same symptoms.
Blood tests and xrays may come back normal in many cases of fibromyalgia, and so in order to get an accurate diagnosis, you may consult a rheumatologist for a detailed clinical evaluation of your symptoms and diagnosis. There are also support groups for fibromyalgia which you may be able to visit for better understanding of the condition and related help.



15. My father is a 61 year old male. He took a fall while roller skating at my daughters birthday party back in July of 2010 and injured his shoulder. He spent several months in a great deal of pain. Concerned he finally sought treatment and began physical therapy. Meanwhile, he had a blood panel done about a month ago. His test came back with liver enzymes elevated so much they asked if he had a drinking problem. My father is a non-drinker, not even an occassional drink out of pure hatred towards the acholism his parents went through. He also had high blood pressure. After several months of his should pain not getting any better, they did a test (cannot recall why type of imaging) and it should an abnormality in his bone marrow - a growth? They have scheduled nuclear imaging with dye for next week. His mother died of leukemia at the age of 72. I am not asking for any medical diagnosis, but just advice of the possible medical issues he could be facing so I can do as much research as possible so I'm prepared for the outcome. Please let me know what you think.
Age: 36-45 years
Sex: Female


Current Medication: I have always been facinated by the medical industry - I have never been wrong in my assumptions of an ailment. Although this time it is personal, I'm trying to prepare myself for waht my father may be facing. I will not share any of the advice I'm given about my father since I am not a physician. This is strictly for my knowledge only.




Elevated Liver Enzymes and Abnormal Bone Marrow - 61 Year Old Male


Considering the positive family history of leukemia, and a strong negative history of alcohol for your father, leukemia seems to be a more likely diagnosis as it compromises liver function leading to the elevated levels of liver enzymes.
Another diagnosis could be a secondary growth, which is a growth not located primarily in the bone marrow, but in other parts of the body, likely the bones.
Other possible causes for the elevated levels of liver enzymes could be a viral liver infection, or medication that he may have been taking (possible herbal or other over the counter medications). I hope this helps.














1. My friend is having an allergic reaction from using a latex condom, he is feeling symptoms of a burning sensation and itching at his penis area. What can he used to relieve the pain?
The cornerstone of latex allergy treatment is avoidance. Non severe latex allergy like itching and burning can be treated with antihistamine medications like benadryl etc. and steriod cream for topical application. However your friend needs to exercise caution because severe allergic reactions like anaphylaxis may occur with latex allergy, and so he needs to avoid any contact with latex. He may consult his GP and may be advised to carry an epinephrine auto-injection kit and wear Medic-Alert identification, in case of an emergency.


2. For the past week, I've had pretty insane upper belly gas. The pressure resides right under my rib cage and makes it difficult to take a deep breath at times until I burp a little or keep trying. I'm taking Zantac and that certainly makes things feel a bit better but the constant pressure feeling , comes and goes in depths of badness, and trouble getting a deep breath are worrisome. Every time that I eat anything, it comes with a few bouts of burping for awhile and causes an increase in the pressure gas feeling under my rib cage. At times, the pressure feels like nothing makes it better, laying down, sitting up, slouching, etc. It is quite uncomfortable. Occassionally, there is a slight issue with swallowing, rather, a discomfort when swallowing. I'm thinking of stopping the Zantac and taking Prilosec but I don't know if that will make it better. Does this still sound like acid reflux?


It seems like acid reflux is the cause from your description of the symptoms. However increased secretion of the acid may not be the only cause, it may be possible that the ring of muscle fibers prevents food from moving backward into the esophagus, may be weak or doesn't close well, allowing the food, liquids, and stomach acid to leak back into the esophagus, producing the symptoms that may not be relieved as much by the medications. You should try to avoid foods and beverages that may trigger your symptoms like alcohol, caffeine, spicy and fatty foods etc. Avoid smoking, bending or exercising just after eating. Eat smaller meals and do not lie down immediately after meals. Sleep with your head raised about 6 inches, may be done by tilting your entire bed, or by using a wedge under your body, not just with normal pillows. Losing weight if you are overweight would make a difference. If the symptoms don’t get better, you may want to see your GP for further clinical evaluation and investigations.


3. I have a question concerning blacking out. I sometimes feel like I am going to black out. I get sort of dizzy and a headache and feel like I am going to black out. I also have lower leg numbness and tingling. Especially when I sit down or go to bed. What could be the cause of this?

You may want to get your blood work done and hemoglobin levels checked, because a common reason for the symptoms like you have described is low hemoglobin levels.
You should try to take a nutritious, iron rich diet with lots of veggies and fruits, date, fig, spinach, cereals, grains, eggs, milk and meat.


4. I am 32 years old and just had my second child 9 weeks ago.My blood pressure is 156 over 120. Is this normal after giving birth
Age: 26-35 years
Sex: Female



Current Medication: Blood pressure pills Prenatal Vitamins
Known Allergies: None
Medical History: Polysytic Ovaries Kidney Infections Kidney Stones



Its not normal for blood pressure to be that high unless, that you have been suffering from hypertension or any other preexisting disease that can cause increase in blood pressure. Although some women develop preeclampsia during pregnancy, one may develop the symptoms of preeclampsia within 6 weeks after pregnancy which is called post partum preeclampsia. You need to continue your blood pressure medications, and follow up regularly with your doctor to prevent any complications.


5. I am 25 and for the past 2 weeks I have been having dizziness lasting most of the day. A rapid heart beat around 140 a couple times a day and nausea and vomiting. I have been to the ER twice and seen my regular doctor and psychiatrist... No Vit B deficiency, panic attacks as I have panic attacks and this is not it. Not pregnancy. BP is normal and all my blood work checked out.
Age: 19-25 years
Sex: Female



Current Medication: valium, zoloft, abilify
Medical History: depression



The current medications you are on may produce these symptoms. You should try to note the onset of the symptoms and its relation with your current medications. Also, while on medications like zoloft, you should try to avoid or limit your alcohol intake because it may cause nausea, vomiting, dizziness, headache etc. due to their interaction and additive effects.


6. Lately, I have been feeling quite dizzy and lightheaded and my head feels like it wants to turn to the right (slant) I also havent been able to eat right and after I do, I feel this feeling. This has been happening for about 1 week now. Any ideas on what it could be?

In my opinion you may have developed an inflammation of the labrynth (its function includes the ability to keep balance) in the inner ear, a condition called labrynthitis. It may occur following an ear infection or upper respiratory infection or an allergy. You may want to see your doctor for proper examination of the condition and treatment to control your symptoms. Labrynthitis usually improves within a few weeks with medications and precautions like avoiding sudden position changes, keep still and rest when symptoms occur and then resume the activity slowly.


7. Can a person get an STI from a handjob?

Only a hand job without involvement of the saliva or mouth, may not pose any risk of acquiring the STI’s. However if saliva is used there may be a rare chance of the transmission of the HPV or herpes infection. A pure handjob should not lead to any STI.


8. Hi, I'm wayne im 23 years old and just need to know what I can do to quickly lower my blood pressure, sometimes it feels like im about to have a stroke and i have a history of high blood pressure, im currently taking prexum as medication as well as adco for cholestrol.
Age: 19-25 years
Sex: Male



Current Medication: acid reflux omeparazol, nexium
Known Allergies: athrophine
Medical History: hypertension cholestrol Im 1.71m and weigh 84kg



You need to continue your medication along with a few tips below to get your blood pressure to normal and maintain it as much as possible.
  • Have a strict healthy eating schedule, which includes fresh fruits and vegetables. Monitor the amount of salt that you have with food and also reduce the consumption of fats.
  • dark chocolate can help you reduce blood pressure quickly as it contains an anti-oxidant known as flavonoid, which has a good impact on the blood vessels. However, don’t consume it in excess as it can lead to weight gain.
  • Include foods like raisins, sardines, figs, apricots etc that are rich in potassium in your diet on a regular basis.
  • Practicing yoga is another effective way in which you can lower the blood pressure. Go in for light exercises, a simple walk for 30 minutes on a regular basis would keep your body healthy.
  • Drinking water around 8-10 glasses everyday can keep your body free of toxins and wash away the salts.
  • If you are a smoker or a drinker, then it is advised that you quit these habits.




9. Me and my boyfriend have been having sex for 2 years and he was recently tested and was told that he has hp vgenital warts. i have been vacinated and we have had a baby so can i still get infected or did my daughter get infected.

it is important to know that the HPV vaccines protect against infection, and provide maximum benefit, for those who is vaccinated before one becomes sexually active. This is because these vaccines do not treat infections. If you received your vaccination before you got involved with your partner, you may be protected a 100% from the infection. Also the risk of transmitting the virus to the baby is considered very low, so your daughter may not have received the infection.


10. Ok i cheated on my boyfriend back in the end of november.. took a test a week later and came back neg. i also went to the doctors december 22 and came back neg. i went to the er january 29 for back and side pain and found out i was about 6 weeks pregnant so my question is would i be pregnant with the guy i cheated with.. im am about 17 weeks here in 5 days im due on september 13 of this year please i am so worried and stress and i know that cant be good for the baby

If you were 6 weeks through at the 29th of january, you may have conceived around the mid of december. As you have mentioned that you cheated on your boyfriend at the end of november, the guy you cheated with may not be the father of your baby.


11. Hallow well from last two year i had a problem a problem with my blood pressure last year my pressure is nearly 94 to 150 hight and normal range is 92 to 94 and upper 125 to 145 on that time my doctor didn t tel me for taking medicine but this year the problem goes up my lower bp is nearly 100 on range and upper one is nearly 160 hit so my doctor advised me for taking alodipine 5 mg a day i am taking for 3 months but my lower pressure is still up 98 so what to do i visited physician also but he still give me that amlodipin tablet so what to i am still trying for loss some extra pound also and doing exercises regularly ' please advised me

You are doing the right thing in reducing weight and exercises, because that will make a difference eventually along with the medications. Additionally you should try to quit any smoking or alcohol habits that you may have, reduce the salt and fat consumption in your diet,


12. I was on oral contraceptives for one and half years and now i have stopped my pills.I was on Ovral T for six months and Loette for rest of the time.Its been almost 3 months since i stopped taking pills and from then on i haven't had my periods.What could be the reason for this? Does this mean that i can never conceive?

"Post-pill amenorrhea," the absence of a menstrual period after you stop the pill, is commonly seen in about one in 30 women after they stop the pills. When you stop taking the pill entirely, the constant hormone level that suppresses ovulation stops. Your body has to start its own hormone production and may sometimes need some time to regain its normal rhythm. The ovary itself has to get ready so that an egg can mature and can be released. If your periods have not returned by 3 to 4 months after having stopped the Pill, you may want to see your GP to organise some blood tests to try to establish the cause, though pregnancy may also be a very common reason for no periods.


13. I'm a 19-year old English girl and I have an overactive thyroid (T3 14, T4 35). I've been referred for radioactive iodine but the waiting list could take months - and I'm worried about my weight. In theory, you'd think I'd be losing weight, but instead I'm gaining like crazy, despite doing loads of exercise and trying to eat as healthily as possible. My appetite has increased so much and I'm constantly starving, and obviously my body, even with an increased metabolism, can't cope with this excess of calories, as I've gained a stone in about 4 months - and the weight gain is getting faster and faster. My doctor doesn't take this seriously and thinks I just need more willpower - but willpower isn't the problem here! I think I need appetite suppressants but I can't see my doctor prescribing me these as I'm not obese, nor even overweight yet. But in a few weeks I will be overweight if this continues, and I just can't cope with that. It's constantly on my mind and really getting me down - if you have any suggestions then I'd love to hear them. Thank you!!
Age: 19-25 years
Sex: Female



Current Medication: propanolol, 2x 40mg daily carbimazole, 1x 5mg daily
Medical History: Graves' thyrotoxicosis




(8 pounds) per year.

Although many patients with hyperthyroidism will indeed lose weight, weight gain is not uncommon. Hyperthyroidism will also result in an increased appetite, and in some patients, an increased appetite and increased food intake may lead to weight gain, despite an increase in metabolic rate that usually accompanies hyperthyroidism. You should pay careful attention to their food intake and physical activity/exercise as the hyperthyroidism is being treated. Decreasing sugar and fat while eating more high fiber carbohydrate foods (for example, whole grain products, including breads, cereals, and potatoes) will help control the tendency to gain weight. Protein should be an important part of at least two meals each day. Appetite is hard to control, and you may need to take action in limiting your food intake.


14. May i know what cause TB? and how to prevent it? what are the symptoms?

Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by bacteria whose scientific name is mycobacterium tuberculosis.
The bacteria get into the air when someone who has a tuberculosis lung infection coughs, sneezes, shouts, or spits (which is common in some cultures). People who are nearby can then possibly breathe the bacteria into their lungs. You don't get TB by just touching the clothes or shaking the hands of someone who is infected. Tuberculosis is spread (transmitted) primarily from person to person by breathing infected air during close contact.
The usual symptoms that occur with an active TB infection are a generalized tiredness or weakness, weight loss, fever and night sweats. If the infection in the lung worsens, then further symptoms can include coughing, chest pain, coughing up of sputum (material from the lungs) and/or blood, and shortness of breath. If the infection spreads beyond the lungs, the symptoms will depend upon the organs involved.
For the prevention of the infection you will need to take INH for up to a year, with periodic checkups to make sure you are taking it as prescribed and that it is not causing undesirable side effects. The BCG vaccine is generally recommended in the countries or communities where the rate of new infection is increasingly prevalent and in very select patients at high risk for tuberculosis and who meet special criteria.


15. My stomach started hurting then I got something to drink and it just got twenty times worse. Is thereanything I can do to fix it, also what could it be?

If the something you used to relieve your stomach ache, was a pop or a drink containing caffiene, you should probably avoid these drinks and instead substitute them with water.
Excessively spicy and fatty foods and any foods with vinegar, tomato sauce, mustard or black pepper, chocolates, alcohol and smoking should also be avoided.
All of the above trigger your stomach ache by increased acid secretion or reflux, producing pain.
In addition to the diet changes, you may take the available OTC antacids for immediate relief of acid pain.



1. My father (age 83) had a severe stroke seven weeks ago. He lost the use of his left side and has had limited recovery. We have been told not to expect much more recovery as the damage to his brain was significant. Is it too early to determine his recovery potential?
The first three hours after having a stroke is a very crucial period for receiving the stroke treatment, and more so determines the extent of recovery of the patient. Maximum recovery occurs within the first few weeks of having the stroke, and then further recovery usually depends on factors like the willingness of the patient, support of the family members and the extent of brain damage incurred during stroke. The treating doctor is possibly the best person to judge the degree of improvement in any particular case.


The first three hours after having a stroke is a very crucial period for receiving treatment, and more so determines the extent of recovery for the patient. The maximum amount of recovery occurs within the first few weeks of having the stroke, and further recovery usually depends on factors like the willingness of the patient, support of family members and the extent of brain damage incurred during stroke. The treating doctor is possibly the best person to judge the degree of improvement in any particular case.

2. I received a tetanus shot 8 years ago that is good for 10 years. Today I cut myself on an old plank of wood (may have been a nail. I dont know but what I do know that the material was old). Should I get a tetanus shot? Also, please put TETANUS as an option. Or at least an OTHER.

In my opinion it would be safe to get a tetanus shot, since the plank of wood had been old with uncertainty of the presence of nail in the wood. although the shot is good for 10 years, it is recommended that in case you receive an injury that may be prone to tetanus, you should take a tetanus shot for protection.

In my opinion it would be safe to get a tetanus shot given that the plank of wood was old and the possibility that there was nail in the plank. Although the shot is good for 10 years, when you receive an injury that may be prone to tetanus, it is still recommended you take a tetanus shot for protection.


3. I am 23 weeks pregnant and have chicken pox now? My eldest daughter had chicken pox. My doctor told me that I am not immune and will get it. Now I have them. I have also been running a fever. I am taking Tylenol 500mg for the fever. My main concern is for the baby. Some people say its not that dangerous after 20weeks and before the last 2 weeks. And there isnt much that can be done to treat chicken pox....just have to ride it out. main concern is my baby

The risk of fetal infection is greatest before 20 weeks and after 36 weeks of maternal infection. So your baby may be safe at this stage of growth and development. Also if you have been vaccinated for chicken pox in childhood or had the infection in young age, you would probably, already be immune to the infection and so would your baby, because of transmission of protective antibodies through your blood on to your baby for its protection. So in either case you need not worry.

The risk of fetal infection is greatest before 20 weeks and after 36 weeks of maternal infection, as such, your baby may be safe at this stage of growth and development. Also, if you have been vaccinated for chicken pox in childhood or had the infection at a young age, you are likely already immune to the infection and so would your baby, because protective antibodies are transmitted through your blood to the baby for protection. So in either case you need not worry.


4. I smoked one hit of weed but i stopped breast feeding since i did and its been two weeks and my babys been on formula wen can i breastfeed him agian so it is out of my system and heathy for him

The active ingredient in marijuana, THC, is stored in fat tissues for long periods (weeks to months). The time taken for it to clear from the system varies with individuals, their weight and rate of metabolism. But usually one hit of marijuana may clear up within a couple of weeks, and you may feed your baby after this period. You need to be careful though, because greater amounts of THC are secreted in the breast milk with increased smoking of the weed which would certainly be harmful to your baby.

The active ingredient in marijuana, THC, is stored in fat tissues for long periods (weeks to months). The time taken for it to clear from the system varies with individuals, their weight and rate of metabolism. But usually one hit of marijuana may clear up within a couple of weeks, and you may feed your baby after this period. You need to be careful though, because greater amounts of THC are secreted in the breast milk with increased smoking of marijuana, which would certainly be harmful to your baby.



5. Are reactive arthritis and writer's arthritis the same thing, similar testing done in terms of urine analysis?

Reactive arthritis also known as Reiter’s arthritis do refer to the same condition in which there is development of arthritis in response to infection in the gastrointestinal or genitourinary system. Stool and urine analysis are the most reliable methods for the identification of the infection that may triggered reactive arthritis.

Reactive arthritis, also known as Reiter’s arthritis, refers to the same condition in which there is development of arthritis in response to infection in the gastrointestinal or genitourinary system. Stool and urine analysis are the most reliable methods for the identifying the infection that may have triggered the reactive arthritis.



6. Is it safe that a white milky liquid comes out of a girls breast before marriage?

White milky discharge from the breasts may be due to hormonal imbalance related to the use of birth control pills or excessive secretion of hormone prolactin from tumour in the pituitary or elsewhere in the body, or it may be due to an underlying breast condition like a tumour. It would be beneficial to have a breasts examined by your family doctor to rule out any abnormality in your breasts, and if necessary a few blood tests could be done to find the cause of the development of the hormonal imbalance that triggered the milk secretion.

White milky discharge from the breasts may be due to hormonal imbalance related to the use of birth control pills, or excessive secretion of hormone prolactin from tumour in the pituitary or elsewhere in the body, or it may be due to an underlying breast condition like a tumour. It would be beneficial to have your breasts examined by your family doctor to rule out any abnormality in your breasts, and if necessary a few blood tests could be done to find the reason for the hormonal imbalance that triggered the milk secretion.


7. Is it safe to get pregnant after two months from chicken pox shot?

Ideally it is recommended that you avoid pregnancy for the next three months after receiving the shot of chicken pox, but no side effects on the fetus has been reported till date, although theoretically risks to the developing fetus may exist. Also the AAP (American Academy of Pediatrics) recommends avoidance of pregnancy for one month after the shot. So pregnancy after two months may be safe, although risks to your baby do exists in theory.

Ideally it is recommended that you avoid pregnancy for the next three months after receiving the shot of chicken pox, but no side effects on the fetus has been reported till date, although theoretically risks to the developing fetus may exist. Also studies have suggested that it could be safe to get pregnant after the completion of the first month after the shot. So pregnancy after two months may be safe, although risks to your baby do exists in theory.



Usually the condition of multiple cysts in the breast/s is referred to as fibrocystic change in the breasts, and are due to the influence of sex hormones secreted by the ovaries, mainly during the menstrual cycles. With your history of hysterectomy, the sex hormone levels in your body would gradually tend to reduce, and thereby stop further development of the cysts and associated symptoms. Another reason for your increased symptoms may be the hormone replacement therapy (HRT), if you have been receiving this HRT for the control of other symptoms. So in my opinion, the cysts may reduce in size with time on its own, slowly, 8. I have had a few lumps in my left breast, it started with pamplonas and now there are more plus 8 cystys and they are causing alot of pain, I have two surgeries to remove 4 of the lumps that were not cancerous but now the breast if full and very swollen. I have talked to my doctor about going ahead with a mastoctomy do you think that is the way to go I am very positive that this is the way to go so that I can go on living without this pain.
Age: 36-45 years
Sex: Female



Current Medication: RA, Epilpesy, Thyroid divalproex 500mg X3 Divalproex 125mg X2 levothroxine x75mg
Medical History: hystercotomy at age 27



usually this condition of multiple cysts in the breast/s is known as the fibrocystic change in the breasts, and are due to the influance of the sex hormones secreted by the ovaries mainly during the menstrual cycles. With your history of hysterectomy, the sex hormone levels in your body would gradually tend to reduce, and thereby stop the further development of the cysts and associated symptoms. Another reason for your increased symptoms may be the hormone replacement therapy (HRT), if you have been receiving this HRT for the control of other symptoms. So in my opinion, the cysts may reduce in size with time on its own, slowly, as they get deprived of the stimulating effects by the reducing amounts of sex hormones in your body and reduction of the HRT (if that is the case).

as they get deprived of the stimulating effects by the reducing amounts of sex hormones in your body, and reduction of the HRT (if that is the case).


9. I'm 30 years old and have been on the pill since I was 19. I went in for a follow-up sonogram because the doctor saw a small cyst on an ovary. That was gone, but she said my ovaries looked a little "plump" and asked me questions about acne, my period, etc. I didn't have any of the symptoms that she asked me about, but came home and reviewed information about PCOS (which she said there's a slight chance) and I realized that I had hair loss in the past year, I am sexually active with someone who might take testosterone, and my breasts have decreased in size. It's difficult because I have lost weight and started weight lifting, and am going through a divorce and had a lot of stress. Could you tell me if increased weight lifting increases testosterone that would affect my ovaries, or if it can lead to decreased breast size? Could you also tell me if close physical contact with someone taking testosterone (externally) could somehow affect my levels? I plan on calling my doctor back tomorrow, but there's way too much information on-line to make me worry. Thank you
HPV
Current Medication: Orthotricyclin lo

Even though women produce testosterone, they do not produce as much as men, and that’s why women don’t grow big muscles under weight training stimulation or at any other time. However weight lifting stimulates your body to increase its rate of metabolism and usage of the stored fats. Thus the fat deposition in your breasts tend to use up and reduce the size of the breasts with heavy exercises. You need to avoid stress because it may be the cause for your increased hair loss,irregular food habits, disturbed sleep and a lot of other adverse effects on health. It is absolutely not possible for the testosterone level of your partner to affect your body levels of testosterone.

Although women produce testosterone, they do not produce as much as men, and that’s why women don’t grow big muscles under weight training stimulation, or at any other time. However weight lifting stimulates your body to increase its rate of metabolism and usage of the stored fats. Thus the fat deposition in your breasts tend to use up and reduce the size of the breasts with heavy exercises. You need to avoid stress because it may be the cause for your increased hair loss, irregular food habits, disturbed sleep and a lot of other adverse effects on health. It is absolutely not possible for the testosterone level of your partner to affect your body levels of testosterone.



10. Hi my name is Andrew Bishop. I'm 25 6'1" 180Lbs. I was a cronic user of marijuana up until i recieved a job offer and now I'm faced with a drug and alcohol test. I stop smoking it 4 days ago. I'm to start this job April 28. They need the results before then. What can i do to clean my system? And is there even enough time to pass this test?

The active ingredient in marijuana, THC, is stored in fat tissues for long periods (weeks to months), and slowly released for longer periods. The time taken for it to clear from the system varies with individuals, depend on amount and frequency of use, metabolic rate, body mass, age, overall health, drug tolerance, and urine pH of each individual. It may take up to 30 days to clear from your system or even more depending on the various factors as mentioned above. The surest way to clean your system is with time, but you may try to fast the process by increased fluid intake to flush it out of the system and exercise to increase your metabolism rate and burn the fat, so that the stored THC may be released faster and can be flushed out of the body.

The active ingredient in marijuana, THC, is stored in fat tissues for long periods (weeks to months), and slowly released for longer periods. The time taken for it to clear from the system varies with individuals, and depends on amount and frequency of use, metabolic rate, body mass, age, overall health, drug tolerance, and urine pH of each individual. It may take up to 30 days to clear from your system, perhaps more depending on the various factors mentioned above. The surest way to clean your system is with time, but you may try to speed up the process by increasing fluid intake to flush it out of the system, exercise to increase your metabolism rate and burn fat so that the stored THC may be released faster and can be flushed out of the body.


11. I was just diagnoses with foot drop caused by nerve damage by uncontrolled diabetethe question I have is will this heal by itself or will i have to have a procedure done to correct the nerve damage?
Age: 46-55 years
Sex: Male


Current Medication: glucophage-glucotrol
Known Allergies: PCN



The recovery of the foot drop depends on the cause and its treatment to prevent further damage to the nerve and assure complete recovery. In your case, complete control of diabetes is the first step in the management of foot drop, along with foot exercises, ankle foot or shoe clasp orthosis, nerve stimulation and if these methods fail to improve the condition, surgery would then be the next available option to align the foot and the ankle for better outcomes.

The recovery of the foot drop depends on the cause and its treatment to prevent further damage to the nerve and assure complete recovery. In your case, complete control of diabetes is the first step in the management of foot drop, along with foot exercises, ankle foot or shoe clasp orthosis, nerve stimulation and if these methods fail to improve the condition, surgery would then be the next available option to align the foot and the ankle for better outcomes.


12. My sister has had breast cancer in both breast, and I have had a tiny knot under my left breast for quite some time, however within the last two weeks the knot has grown quite dramatically and I need to know if I should consult a surgeon. I have limited insurance and can not see several doctors.

I would suggest you to consult a surgeon at the earliest, because a sudden increase in the size and activity of a breast lump is very suspicious of a malignant growth, and you need to get yourself examined for an early diagnosis and treatment.

I would suggest you to consult a surgeon at the earliest, a sudden increase in the size and activity of a breast lump is very suspicious of a malignant growth, and you need to get yourself examined for an early diagnosis and treatment.


13. I have had constant back pain since the middle of last year. It first started in the center of my lower back but has now spread up into my spine. My spine hurts now when pressure is exerted on it. It also hurts when I bend forward and backwards. I also get a lot of muscle movements in my back. They started in the center of my back on either side of my spine, now I feel them in my stomach and on the sides of my body. My muscles on both sides of my spine are tight and get really sore especially when sitting. Sometimes my back muscles feel tingly. I have had an X-ray but doctors said they couldn't see anything so they advised me to have physio. I have been having physio for 9 weeks now and my spine and it's surrounding muscles still hurt. They pain has spread to other areas of the back since I first started physio. What is wrong with my back?
Age: 19-25 years
Sex: Female


Medical History: Had an X-ray but doctors cannot see anything so they advised me to have physio. I have been having physio for 9 weeks now and pain has spread.




In my opinion, you may need an MRI for better assessment of the condition of your spine, and it would be a better option to consult a neurosurgeon for an accurate diagnosis of your condition. It would be helpful if you could relate any injury, accidents, falls or any symptoms of infection like cough, diarrhia, fever etc. with the onset of your back and spine pain, because it may be possible that your pain could be a symptom of a disease process located at another site in the body.

In my opinion, you may need an MRI for better assessment of the condition of your spine, and it would be a better option to consult a neurosurgeon for an accurate diagnosis of your condition. It would be helpful if you could relate any injury, accidents, falls or any symptoms of infection like cough, diarrhia, fever etc. with the onset of your back and spine pain, because it may be possible that your pain could be a symptom of a disease process located at another site in the body.


14. My name is heather. And my question and concern is... i am twenty for years old and weigh about 240lbs. I have not always had a easy life and so i honestly am saying that i smoke methamphetamines(like three times a week), ciggarettes(like ten a day), and marijuana frequently daily. For the past four years or so i have had an annoying amount of coughing. There is not to much phlem that comes from it, its a dry non raspy after a while make my throat sore and have a heartbeat in it kind of thing. Not only that but it has come to my attention that when placing my hand apon my throat. That if I push alittle.i can feel a small popping. like its shifting. And sometimes when i eat food or drink anything after a few days it will hurt every time i swallow. I am so worried my lungs are going to collapse or that i might get some kind of cancer. Is this something i need to be worried about immediately and what can i do as far as getting the cough. Away besides quitting smoking because i started today? Plz Help!!!..
Age: 19-25 years
Sex: Female


Current Medication: Over the counter mucus chest relief. And cough relief. Iron for chronic anemia and my inhalers(albuterol,and orange steroid flo vent inhaler).
Known Allergies: None
Medical History: Have had tonssils out at 17yrs. Wisdom teeth at 23yrs. (All four) chronic anemia, and irregular periods up to months sometimes.



You may have developed chronic bronchitis, due to smoking. Although the most important step you can take is to QUIT smoking, and besides that you need to do is drink plenty of fluids to keep yourself hydrated, steam inhalation to reduce the inflammation and cough drops or other liquid suppressants that contain dextromethorphan available over the counter may be helpful. In case these cough medicines do not work, you may see your GP for a prescription cough medicine that may work better for your cough.

You may have developed chronic bronchitis due to smoking. Although the most important step you can take is to QUIT smoking, along with drinking plenty of fluids to keep yourself hydrated, steam inhalation to reduce the inflammation and cough drops or other liquid suppressants that contain dextromethorphan (available over the counter) may be helpful. In case these cough medicines do not work, you may see your GP for a prescription cough medicine that may work better for your cough.


15. I wanted to know if it's possible to contract viral meningitis from a dog bite? I was bit by a dog on Nov 11 2010. Within 7-10 days I was hospitalized with viral meningitis. Never thought for a minute they were related until someone told me you can contract it from an animal bite.

Yes it is possible to contract infection from a dog or any animal bite, since they carry several micro organisms as a part of the normal flora in their mouth, that are capable of producing mild to severe infections in humans. Treatment of the dog bite wound should be sought immediately for prevention of the spread of infection because the infection frequently gets inoculated into the deeper tissues with the bite of the animal.

Yes it is possible to contract infections from a dog or any animal bite because they carry several micro organisms as a part of the normal flora in their mouth, these floar are capable of producing mild to severe infections in humans. Treatment of the dog bite wound should be sought immediately to prevent the spread of infection because the infection frequently gets inoculated into the deeper tissues from the bite.

1. Is it possible for migraines to come back after a few years, and if so what can I do for it? Advil doesn't do anything for them any more.

Migraine may go away completely and reappear after a few years. It is a chronic condition but the severity and frequency of attacks tend to diminish with increasing age. It is beneficial to avoid factors that precipitate a migraine attack, including lack of sleep, fatigue, stress, certain foods, use of vasodilators. Pain relief medications are most effective when taken within 15 minutes of the onset of pain. You may try using acetaminophen, aspirin, indomethacin, diclofenac etc for mild to moderate headaches, but if you experience severe headaches and other symptoms like nausea, vomiting etc, migrane specific medications from the triptan or the ergot groups like sumatriptan, rizatriptan, zolmitriptan or ergotamine etc. would be required for the control of your symptoms. You may want to visit your doctor to assess your symptoms and prescription of necessary medications. Your doctor may also consider a preventive treatment with certain medications like Propranolol, timolol, methysergide, valproic acid, and topiramate, to reduce the frequency, severity, and/or duration of the migraine attacks.

1. I just purchased vitamin b12 and D3. How much of each should I take daily?

There are a number of variables like your age, reason for taking the vitamin supplement, the form of vitamin, and also factors like the amount of sun exposure, time of year, your weight and skin tone etc. determine what dosage would be best for you. It's really not possible to recommend a single amount for everyone. If you just want to use supplements for general health benefits, the typical adult dose of vitamin B12 is 2.4 mcg daily, and that of vitamin D would be at least 1,000-2,000IU daily or may be 5,000IU per day if you get little or no sunlight.

2. There was a small mass on my managram and i am 74 and had a hysterectomy in 1997. there is no breast cancer in my family. they want me to do a ultrasound but i would like to repeat the managram. what is your opinion?

Mammography sensitivity for breast cancer declines significantly with increasing breast density. Usually in women with dense breasts ultrasound is preferred and it is also an accepted method of choice for the differentiation of cysts from solid masses.
It may be beneficial to choose ultrasound over a repeat mammogram for a clearer assessment of the mass.


3. Can bipolar disorder be passed from a parent to their children .


Bipolar disorder frequently occurs within families, and studies do show that children would be more likely to inherit bipolar disorder if either or both of their parents have it. If one parent has this disorder, the risk to their kid is about 25–30%, and if both parents have this disorder the risk may be as high as 65%.


4. I have only just turned 15 and have got swollen lymph nodes in my neck and groin, In my groin their are quite alot of them also There is a very large one about the size of a marble on my jaw line by my throat, they seem painless and i am very worried that it could point to cancer, also i am having no other symptons of lymphoma (tiredness, night sweats, fatigue etc.) please help as i am very worried


Common causes of enlarged lymph nodes are infections, virus, malignancy or lymphoma. Also during this growth phase in your life, normally the lymph nodes feel enlarged due to an active lymphatic system, so if the if the nodes are small (less than 2 cm), this is considered normal. But if you feel symptoms like tiredness, weight loss, fever, night sweats, itching, breathlessness, infections that keep coming back or if the skin overlying these nodes is red, painful or the nodes grow rapidly, you should consult your doctor for further assessment of these nodes by blood tests, Xrays or CT scans. Biopsy of the node may be needed to determine the cause of the swelling.

5. I have slept with my boyfriend everyday since sunday.. But for the past couple of days I have really bad pains when I need or go for a wee.. I dnt know weather its a sign of pregnancy or if its just a bladder infection... I am getting really scared and I realluy can't handle the pain .. The pain is coausing me to scream when I am going for a wee and I feel like I need a big wee but only a little comes out... Please help.. Thankyou very much for reading this

Your symptoms may likely be due to the urine infection. You should visit your GP for treatment of this infection with antibiotics and may also need to get a urine test for the analysis of the extent of the infection. Increased intake of fluids would help flush out the infection from your system.

6. I had the measles vaccine as a child in the 1970's. Will I have lifelong immunity?

The measles vaccine is very effective and renders life long immunity in most individuals. You may need a second dose of this vaccine if you are at greater risk of exposure to the disease or a person having measles infection for protection.

7. I currently take 100mg of eltroxin for hypothyroid, my doctor has now prescribed weekly b12 injections and folic acid, why and are these connected

Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid both play a big role in the metabolic processes. Their deficiency is usually associated with hypothyroid conditions, because of decreased availability of these nutrients due to reduced diet and appetite, and additional supplementation is usually required for effective formation of the thyroid hormones and metabolism.

8. I am a 21 year old male and am not overweight at all. I have been having left side chest pain for two months and also a little bit of pain going into my shoulder. I went to the emergency room fearing heart attack. I was given a e.k.g. test chest x ray and had some blood taken and everything came back normal. I am still getting pain occasionally and am not sure what's wrong. Do you think I might have a clogged artery? Or some kind or something else may be causing it what do you think? Thank you

From your description it seems your pain is not related to any cardiac condition, but may be due to the soreness of the chest wall muscles. The pain is usually long-lasting and is often made better or worse by a particular position. Taking a deep breath may make the pain worse, and it may be localized to a specific area of the chest. Also, you may try pressing on this area of the chest, which usually causes the pain to become worse in case of a muscular pain.

9. I went to my family Dr. on monday, and after no tests, just going off of what I told him, he diagnosed me with Pertussis. This is what I told my Doctor. I have had a constant cough since about February every morning when I wake up, and late at night when I'm getting ready for bed. I always feel like I have flem in my throat and it's impossible to get out, but my cough is a dry cough. He prescribed me with 250mg Z-Pak, and I don't really feel like it's helping. Tomorrow is the last day of my Z-Pak, and I honestly feel like I'm coughing more than I was before, but now its more of a wet cough. I'm just curious as to if he made a correct diagnosis, and if so, if my reaction to the medication is normal?

In my opinion you may have a post nasal drip of the mucus which may be due to allergies irritating your throat and thereby producing a dry cough, more so when you are lying down at night rather than during the day. Also the antibiotic may not improve your cough for this reason. You may need to dry the mucus secretions caused by allergies with the use of a anti-histamines, decongestants or nasal steroid sprays to get relief from this cough.

10. Can being on antibiotics for a urinary tract infection reduce the risk of contracting herpes when exposed to the virus?

The antibiotics used for UTI’s treat a broad range of bacterias responsible for urinary tract infections, however it does not prevent any viral infections including herpes, for which anti viral medications would be used. Taking precautionary measures is the best option in order to avoid contracting the herpes infection.

11. Hi, I am in my late 30s and I'm always feeling tired and sleepy. I sleep okay (around 6-8 hours).I work out regularly and I also take vitamins B, C and E. What can I do to remedy my situation? Thanks.

A common cause for the tired and sleepy feeling is low hemoglobin levels in the blood. Another reason could be increased amount of stress and tension. You may want to get your blood iron levels checked, and if low, correct the iron deficiency by taking iron supplements by eating iron rich foods such as meat, liver, shellfish, beans etc. Also yoga, meditation and walks may help with relaxation and reducing stress. Try to maintain your sleep pattern by going to bed around the same time everyday and attain a minimum 8 hours of sleep to keep yourself fresh and energetic.

12. Do you instantly get an STD from light bumping with your penis onto the upper genital of the female area while wearing a condom? I did it slowly and lightly for less than 10 seconds. about 3 to 4 bumps. No penetration. that's all. And it was with an escort girl. I don't know if i got an STD. I'm just asking.

It is very unlikely for you to have acquired the STD based on what you have descriped. Unless the escort had any kind of active lesions or warts over her genital area which are capable of transmitting the infection. Infections like HPV or warts are transmitted through skin contacts with the infected person.

13. Of the four main types of leukemia, CLL, ALL, CML, and AML, which is closer to be related to genetics and which one is not determined by genetics at all?

CLL is found to be closely related to the hereditary factors and CML seems to be the one not found to be related with genetics at all.

14. I received the result from an urinalysis that shows high levels of creatinine (261 mg per dL), microalbumin (11.1 mg per dL) and total protein (33 mg per dL). I'm wondering if these levels are anything I should be concerned about and what they might indicate.

The above lab values from the urine analysis indicates the decreasing functional or filtering capacity of the kidneys. You need to consult your doctor for early treatment and prevention of a possible further worsening of the condition. Primary causes with any damage to the kidneys like glomerular diseases, nephrotic syndrome or secondary kidney damage due to diabetes, hypertension etc. all needs to be assessed to diagnose the cause of deteriorating kidney functions.

15. Migrain for almost four days straight with sharp pain only on the right side what do i do

Using ice, relaxation techniques, and if possible sleep may help with migraine attacks once it has started. Specific medications for migraine from the triptan or the ergot groups like sumatriptan, rizatriptan, zolmitriptan or ergotamine etc. would be required to control your symptoms. You may want to see your doctor for necessary medications, who may also consider a preventive treatment with certain medications like Propranolol, timolol, methysergide, valproic acid, and topiramate to reduce the frequency, severity, and/or duration of the migraine attack.

1. I'm 44 years old woman and I've not got my periods for past 3 months, is it normal? Or am i going through menopause?


The phase before you actually have menopause (refers to having no periods for 1 year) is known as peri-menopause, which may last on an average of 4 years, may be less in some women or up to 7 or 10 years in others. So you may be experiencing perimenopause that usually starts around this time. One may experience a sudden stop of the menstrual cycle or may have irregular cycles with a gradual reduction in the inter menstrual period. It should be noted though, that you may get pregnant during perimenopause because your ovaries are still capable of releasing the ovum until you have attained complete menopause. Unless you have been sexually active, any chances of pregnancy could be ruled out, and the absence of periods would possibly be related to the normal perimenopausal changes of women's life. You may also experience other symptoms like hot flashes, emotional changes, night sweats, heart pounding, sleep problems, decreased interest in sex etc. associated with the hormonal changes of perimenopause.

2. Hello my mom is 47 years old and she has been dignose with IDC BREAST CANCER GRADE ONE does she need to remove her brest and does she need chimo therapy after that

Stage one IDC means the tumour is confined to an area of the breast and there is no spread of the tumour cells to the nearby tissues or lymph nodes. At this stage removal of only the lump along with sample testing of the related surrounding lymph nodes for any spread, would be an option of choice for surgery, rather than removal of the whole breast. This surgery may be followed by chemotherapy if the results of the lymph node sampling come back positive for the tumour cells. However the selection of the type of treatment is based on individual circumstances such as the location of the cancer in the breast, history of prior disease, any positive family history, general health condition, age etc.

3. I have been suffering with nosebleeds for overa year and a half now. When they bleed, the blood pours from my nose and will not stop until some sort of mucus comes out of it. the mucus comes out in great lumps, after which my nose will stop bleeding and be okay! i get these nose bleeds at all times of year and not just when i have cold. wi hvae upwards of 20 nosebleeds a year and they last on average about 20 minutes! i lose a lot of blood and often feel light headed after! my blood pressure is normal please help me
Age: 19 - 25

You need to consult and ENT specialist since you have been losing large amounts of blood and feeling lightheaded following every episode. It is absolultely necessary to find and treat the cause of the repeated nasal bleeding in large amounts to prevent such episodes in future. The bleeding could be due infection, foreign body stuck inside, deviated or perforated nasal septum, vigorous nose blowing, use of drugs like cocaine, bleeding disorder or tumour etc. You may try to stop the bleeding by ice application on the cheeks and by bending your head forward and pinching the nose for few minutes, then releasing it and repeating this technique several times would help stop your bleeding.

4. What does it mean when you cough up yellowish greenish stuff with blood in it
Age: 13-18 years
Sex: Female





Current Medication: iron pill,depakote,risperdol,abilify
Known Allergies: dust and dasies
Medical History: i have panick attacks and very low iron



Yellowish green phlegm suggests that the underlying cause for the cough is some kind of infection. When blood is also associated with this yellow green phlegm it may be coming from the site of infection due to irritation and bleeding. Also the colour of the blood is important for diagnosing the site and reason this blood is coming from. Common reasons for such phlegm is upper respiratory tract infection, sore throat, allergies, pneumonia or other lung diseases.

5. Okay just got done with my bowel momvement and then looked down and saw what i say looked like fruit punch the first bowel momvement hurt but the rest went normal other than blood in the bowl whats the most likely cause of this
Age: 19-25 years
Sex: Male

When the bowel movement hurts, chances are, that the with the passage of the hard stool may have lacerated the soft anal skin causing it to bleed. Another common reason would be piles or hemorrhoids that you may have developed due to constipation, and which may have started to bleed due to the injury by the hard stools during bowel movement. It is advisable to see your your doctor for an examination and treatment as this area is flooded with all kinds of bacteria that may produce infection and further complications.

6. I'm 16, female, whenever I come home from school, my head starts to hurt really bad, and it won't stop until I take a nap. This "nap" usually lasts 3 - 4 hours, and when I wake up, I find that I'm still tired. This is a problem, as I cannot get any homework done and I'm unable to concentrate on certain tasks. The headaches have started a few weeks ago, but did not occur everyday. However, since about last week, my head has began to hurt at about 1:00 PM (during school), and it continues for about 4 or 5 hours, or until I fall asleep. I usually eat a sandwich for lunch, and I eat breakfast most of the time, so I doubt it is food related. I heard that this may be caused by dehydration, but I also drink a lot of liquids so I don't think that is the case. Please help. What could be the cause of this and how do I prevent it?

Your headaches seem to be related to stress, may be due to the excess tension about studies and school. You should try to reduce your stress by developing a routine in all you work and activities at school and home. Try to incorporate some aerobic exercise into your routine, or meditation and yoga would also be beneficial to increase your confidence, energy and reduce stress. Also developing regular sleep and eating habits is essential for a healthy lifestyle.

7. My daughter has tested a false positive for hep c 3x what causes this?

A false positive test means the test looks as if it is positive, but it is really negative. This happens more often in persons who have a low risk for the disease for which they are being tested, and also because the test for Hep C is so sensitive that sometimes it over-identifies antibodies in the blood as geared towards hepatitis C even when they're not. So a false positive Hep C test suggests that your daughter has a low risk for hepatitis C infection.

8. Hi my doctor prescribe me ofloxacin for my strep sore throat ,but when i search about such medicine is not recommended for sore throat , shall i continue eating it or stop .its just for my strep sore throat

You might as well continue the antibiotic and complete the course af the prescribed dose schedule, to prevent the development of tolerance and resistance to this antibiotic. Although the preferred antibiotic treatment is penicillin, amoxicillin, erythromycin, cephalosporins or azithromycin, they are prescribed to reduce the duration of infection, transmission of infection and prevent development of any complications, even if it is left untreated, the body will generally clear the infection within two to five days, and this is the usual course of the illness. You may want to consult your doctor in case your symptoms do not start to improve or get worse for the change of antibiotics in a couple of days.

9. So lately I've noticed that almost immediately after I eat i get terrible pains in my stomach and i get horribly bloated. Also recently I've been getting excruciating cramps in my lower back region. I have already ruled out Menstrual cramps as I have not experienced a cycle since I was 16 - I am now 20. (I am also on depo-provera) They start with no warning, usually last 15-20 minutes and during this time I cannot move because the pain is so terrible. I have had them on and off for about a year but only recently in the last 3-4 months have they been occurring almost 2-3 times a day and the pain is getting worse. It starts out as a dull throbbing then quickly turns into a sharp satbbing cramping feeling like someone is crushing my kidneys under their foot. I was curious as if this could possibly be I.B.S because the symptoms fit, all but the back cramps. someone please help me, the pain is becoming unbearable. thank you!

The cramps and back pain may be related to the use of depot provera, since such side effects have been reported with its use. You may want to consult your doctor for the possibility of these side effects of depot provera. It would also be helpful if you could relate the occurrence of these symptoms with every intake of the same kind of foods.

10. I have been feeling kinda awkward the last several days and not sure as to why. I am scheduled to have a spinal tap at the end of this month, as the drs think I may have MS. I have had an MRI done, which showed the white spots and my symptoms have leaned towards that. I have been having double vision when I look to my right and when I start to be physically active-everything gets double to me and some other symptoms. This has been on going since October 2010. Aside from all that though-a few strange things have happened to me since Friday (today is Wednesday). I woke up friday-totally dizzy and off balance and nauseous. My ears felt plugged and figured it was due to that. The plugged ears went away but I was off all day-light headed, nauseaous, and just kinda woozy-but come saturday, Sunday and Monday I felt fine. Well on Tuesday my vision in my right eye totally disappeared-was VERY dark grey, almost black, with some haze and lasted about 2 minutes. After vision came back-I got a very bad headache. That went away eventually. Today (wednesday) I got the same loss of vision issue-not quite as dark but still did not have vision in right eye and it lasted about 30 seconds, again, followed by a headache. Well, got home and rested some, because I was very tired and got up and was wallking around, when the right side of my body "went to sleep" for a few seconds. My arm felt heavy and my leg felt like it would if you were sitting on it wrong and it goes to sleep and you have a hard time walking. That only lasted a few seconds-maybe 10 or so, followed by severe headache. Headache has lessened some, but is still there. I am not a hypochondriac, but just seems like very strange things and not sure if its related to possible diagnosis of MS or something different. and obviously my Drs office is closed now.....thanks for feedback!

From your description, it seems that your symptoms are likely related to the MS. You may have multiple neurologic deficits at different times and locations, which is a part of this disease condition. Your symptoms would likely improve with the treatment of MS.I have high blood pressure and weak kidneys. What can I take for allergies?



11. Had intercourse with ex august 12th. missed period end of august. intercourse with new boyfriend aug 26th,27th, 30th, and sept. 3rd all of which he ejaculated inside of me. ultrasound oct. 7th showed only yolk sac. ultrasound oct. 26th dated pregnancy at 8 weeks 4 days. I took 3 pregnancy tests in the first weeks of sept. which all came back negative. is it possible for baby to have been conceived by ex from intercourse on aug. 12th and for the ultrasound dating to be 3-4 weeks off? Due date is June 3rd.

The ultrasound dating is pretty accurate and may vary only up to ± 5 days from the estimated date of gestation. From the dates you have provided, it seems that your new boyfriend is likely the father of your baby.

12. Hi, my best friend just found out she's pregnant. she is very confused as she thinks there is a risk of two possible fathers. she is not sure of date of last period either which doesnt help matters. she had sex with first guy on March 6th and 2nd guy on March 17th. Her blood test wasnt informative as reception just said 1-9weeks pregnant.can she accurately find out paternity before baby is born using dates or will she have to do test such as cvs? HELP

With the help of the dating done during her ultrasound, it would be possible for her to know how far along she is with her pregnancy. And by counting backwards, she may be able to find the date on which she possibly may have conceived. Usually on or around 4-5 days before the calculated date of conception, would be when she might have had intercourse which led to this pregnancy. So by remembering the guy with whom she had sex at and closest to the calculated date of conception would likely be the father of her baby.

13. I have high blood pressure and weak kidneys. What can I take for allergies?

Any medication should to be used cautiously with kidney problems, blood pressure, heart or liver conditions. Also the dose and frequency of most drugs need to be adjusted and monitored by your doctor, since these drugs are largely removed from the system through urine. The available OTC allergy medications like benadryl, atarax etc could be taken, but under the supervision of your treating doctor and lower initial dosages may be appropriate.


14. Hi, I think that I have salmonella poisoning (all my symptoms match that of salmonella) since April 1st. I know where and what I ate that may have caused this and I have had severe stomach cramping, pain and diarrhea. I also have green stool. How much longer should I wait for this to go away before I see a doctor, since it has been 12 days now? Thanks, Erica.

You need to see your doctor if the symptoms of salmonella infection do not go away by 5 to 7 days. So you may want to visit your doctor for antibiotics specially if your symptoms do not seem to improve or get worse.

15. Hello. I am 39 yo. Over the last two years I have had four pap smears, three of which have been abnormal. Each indicated that high grade couldn't be ruled out. Each was followed by colposcopy which indicted mild cellular changes. I am not a fan of watchful waiting. My question is, even if dysplasia is determined to be mild, shouldn't some treatment be in order? I am not a fan of "watchful waiting" having watched my father die of advanced prostate cancer that we watched and waited for too long.

Mild dysplasia may regress, remain the same or advance with time, so a watchful waiting is usually preferred for the treatment of these patients, and close follow up with pap smears is continued to recognise an early change (if any occurs) so that an immediate treatment can be provided in case of any advancement in dysplasia. However depending on individual case and circumstances different approaches for the management of mild dysplasia are likely to be followed with an early treatment or an aggressive treatment through cryosuygery, laser surgery or LEEP but recurrence may occur in about 10% of the cases. Your doctor is the best person to guide you through the best options in your case.


























































1. Hi i m 18 weeks pregnant and my randon blood sugar was 196 and fasting is 94 so plz tell me need i insulane?

Diabetes during pregnancy is usually tested between 24 to 28 weeks of gestattion since this is the best time to diagnose diabetes due to the hormonal effects of pregnancy. A fasting plasma glucose level >126 mg/dL (7.0 mmol/L) or a casual plasma glucose >200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) meets the threshold for the diagnosis of diabetes. Since your fasting as well as blood glucose levels are within the recommended normal range, you may not need insulin at this time. But you may want to get yourself tested for blood sugar after 24 weeks for confirmation of these sugar levels yet again.

2. Hello i am 28yrs old female. i got married 5 yrs back. i had 2 miscarriage(oct 2009,feb 2010) which my gynae said was missed abortion. then i did KOCH TEST n was given TB medication for 6 months. Now they say i can try concieving.its been almost 4 months since i have been trying but not being able to conceive. i have done almost all tests possible like TORCH,THYROID ETC ETC. I have been advised to take LETOVAL 2.5 MG AND CAVERTA 50 MG. I just want to know what is the most important test to be done in order to know if i will ever have a child. do u suggest any test for my husband?

No single test would be sufficient to determine your chances of pregnancy. Besides blood tests and ultrasound examination, other tests may need to be done in order to rule out any anatomical malformation or abnormality like the size, shape, position and linings of the uterus, patency of the fallopian tube (through which the ovum travels after being released from the ovary), any adhesions, fibroid and the condition of the cervix. And those other tests would include hysterosalpingogram (an Xray of the uterus and the fallopian tubes with injection of the dye) and laparoscopy. Semen analysis of your husband would be important for assessing the amount, sperm activity, motility etc. to ensure maximum chances of pregnancy at each time of deposition of the semen.

3. Hi, I am 15 years old and sexually active. I recently stopped taking the DEPO (birth controll) shot. Now I have been on my period for a little over a month. Is this normal? What should I do. I have told my mom but she refuses to take me to a doctor.

Unless you are bleeding heavily, soaking up constant maxi pads, you need not worry because your periods and ovulation would need approximately 5 to 6 months to eventually get back to normal. You may sometimes get heavy bleeding or even spottings and for varied duration until your ovulation resumes (which had been arrested by the use of contraception) and you start to have a normal periods in amount and duration.

4. I have a history of Arnold Chiari Malformation and a communicating syrinx (C6 to T3) that did not shrink after posterior fossa decompression for the chiari (surgery was in 2005). I have regular MRIs and I am currently on Tramadol ER 100mg for the pain. I am a moderately active person. I am a teacher and I work in a building without an elevator, so I am constantly up and down the stairs between our classes on five our five floors. I live in NYC, so I walk everywhere. Recently, the pain in my back has been getting worse or not been alleviated when I've taken medication. It extends to my ribs, neck, and-or arms. I've also had some difficulty walking sometimes when I first get up (I'm stiff and my legs are sore). My question is whether or not this is something I should be concerned about. I wonder if I'm just pushing my body too hard, considering the nerve damage. I last had an MRI about 6 months ago and the syrinx was stable.

You need to avoid excess physical strain to reduce the burden on your spine and back muscles. The worsening of your symptoms seem to be related to the increased physical activity of your body and in order to manage your symptoms and work and daily activities, it would be beneficial to seek physical therapy or occupational therapy for necessary modifications.

5. I was diagnosed with sciatica, went to physical therapy and was given anti inflammatory medication. My doctor sent me for an mri weeks later, because I still have tingling in the left leg and at times it still cramps and I have muscle spasms in it. I also have low back pain still and will get shooting pains when bending and lifting. The mri showed everything looked ok, however I'm still having problems with it. Could it be something else? I had tingling and burning sensation for 2 years on my lower left side of my back, at times it would get pretty bad, however I ignored it until this episode that sent me to the doctor.

Sciatica occurs when there is compression or damage of the sciatic nerve. This nerve starts in the spine and runs down the back of each leg. Your symptoms are related to sciatica and they may persist for a while until slowly the recovery occurs.
You may try the following to reduce pain: while sleeping, try lying in a curled-up, fetal position with a pillow between your legs. If you usually sleep on your back, place a pillow or rolled towel under your knees to relieve pressure. Avoid prolonged sitting or lying with pressure on the buttocks. If you have ongoing problems with pain, you may want to see a neurologist or a pain specialist to ensure that you have access to the widest range of treatment options.

6. Is there a difference between creatinine levels between subjects with one kidney and one with both?

Normal levels of creatinine in the blood approximately range from 0.5 to 1.2 milligrams per deciliter in adults, while persons with only one kidney may have a normal level of about 1.8 or 1.9. The creatinine levels mark the kidney function and how well they clean the body of the metabolic wastes (regardless of single or both kidneys). When one kidney is removed (or absent), the remaining kidney hypertrophies (enlarges) to compensate for the lost kidney and enhances its cleaning capacity. Thus, it may result in insignificant rise in creatinine and may have no effect on overall health or longevity.


7. I am 20 year old female and have never had heartburn before. I got heart burn for the first time on Tuesday and it hasn't gone away. It's been a week. I have tried tums and pepcid and neither have helped. Could this be something more serious than just heartburn?


Heartburn is a symptom as well as cause for the production of more heartburn symptom. Heartburn occurs
when the stomach acid comes in contact with the esophagus causing irritation. In my opinion it could
more likely be either due to gastro esophageal reflux disease or hiatal hernia. You may try to corelate
your symptoms with its time of onset, the type of food that triggers your heartburn and if your
symptoms change with the change in position or abdominal pressure. Also medication from the proton
pump inhibitors group like Prilosec etc., available OTC, may be appropriate for heartburn treatment.
Diet modifications like less spicy and fatty foods, increased intake of water and exercise may be very
helpful in the management of heartburn.



8. Im experiencing heartburn with pain on my left side around the area pf my intestin,from my chest to
my navel area. The pain has become, intense,lasting all day.,every day. Please help if you can. Im a
working mom paushing myself.



The increasing severity of your pain may be due to an acid ulcer formation in the stomach or duodenum, which is the first part of the small intestine. You may want to see your doctor for an early treatment and control of your symptoms. You may try taking available OTC medications like Prilosec, Pepcid, Gaviscon, Peptobismol etc. for the relief of pain. Increase your water intake and try to avoid spicy and fatty foods for prevention of hyperacidity.


9. Everyday I have a heavy and foggy feeling in my head. I feel like i have no balance when i walk and always have a feeling like im going to faint while standing. I get nausous and start getting a dizzy spell and this happens everyday. Had a cat scan, blood work, ekg and nothing shows up. What can I do about this problem?


There could be an infection or inflammation of the labyrinth (in the inner ear) following an ear infection, upper respiratory infection or allergy which interferes with the ability to keep balance, producing the symptoms of imbalance, dizziness and heavy feeling. Labyrinthitis usually goes away within a few weeks. Treatment of the infection and other symptoms with antibiotics, antihistamines, prednisone, meclizine etc. would help. You may see your doctor if the symptoms increase in severity and for prescription of the medications.


10. Can the spleen stay enlarged from mono forever? I had mono years ago and couple times a month my spleen has sharp and pressue pains. It sometimes occurs when I'm sick, full, tired, or out of the blue! I have always been able to feel my spleen under my ribs, indicating that its large. Any idea's? I'm starting to really worry. i was 17 when I first contracted mono and I'm now 21?


Once infected, the virus may remain in the body for life. Periodically, the virus may reactivate, but usually without any symptoms of illness. In my opinion you should consult your doctor for an assessment of the cause of enlarged spleen and accurate treatment. You may want to avoid vigorous contact sports that may result in the rupture of enlarged spleen. Additional tests for the identification of the cause may be recommended which includes the peripheral blood smear, ultrasound of the liver, spleen, bone marrow examination may also be indicated if the cause of splenomegaly is not identified.


11. Hi. Lately I've had some strange "heart attack" Fellings in my chest, it feels like my heart stops for a momemt and then beats verry hard again, It kind of jumps up in the neck like from a shock after that it beats normal again.. These attacks happen many times a day and sems to be non-related to what I am doin, it doesn't hurt me or anything just feels uncomfortable for a moment. I am a healthy boy 15 years old and I do sport-stuff a lot, btw I don't know if it has anything to do with it but I love to eat meat I eat much of it. Please help I'm relly scared :'(



The description of your feelings may be associated with benign conditions of the heart related with electrical impulse conduction such as
From the description of your symptoms, it seems that you may have a benign cardiac condition like Wolff-parkinson-white syndrome or may be atrial fibrillation. You may or may not experience symptoms
with either of these conditions. You may want to visit your doctor for an assessment and an EKG to help in the diagnosis in caseyou have any cardiac condition related to your symptoms.



12. I have COPD. Around last Thanksgiving I caught a mild cold. I secreted small amounts of clear mucous from my throat and had a mild throat clearing cough for about a week. I never secreted any mucous with any color and I never felt sickly. My question is whether or not the cold I described would cause a loss of more lung function, or if it is likely there is no new damage. The people on my COPD website are divided on their opinions. Does a mild cold automatically mean more damage for a person with COPD?


In COPD, less air flows in and out of the airways and the walls of the airways may become thick and inflamed. Even a mild cold may trigger a flare up of your COPD and make you feel more sick producing more severe symptoms. Thereby a mild cold may lead to more damage than it would otherwise.



13. My daughter (21 yr old)went to her ob for birth control. routine test showed 'high' liver enzymes. She was also diagnosed with PCOS.They repeated the liver test a month later then referred her to a liver dr. The liver doctor ordered three more blood tests once a month. She just went for her follow up with him and still no diagnosis. now they are sending her for another blood test and an ultrasound. I am concerned as the dr said that the tests did not fluctuate much so she needs to lose weight before her next blood test. She is about 45lbs over weight, and not a drinker.How long should it take for a diagnosis, and when should she seek a second opinion.


A possible cause for the elevation of the liver enzymes in your daughter may be her being overweight. So may be the reason, why her doctor has asked her to loose weight before her next blood test. The condition is called non alcoholic fatty liver, and is reversible in early stages of the condition if focused on the weight reduction. Weight reduction must be achieved through reasonable methods, and it must occur at a slow pace. This means that people should aim for a 1-2 pound weight loss per week. Excessively rapid weight reduction or starvation techniques can actually worsen the condition. In general, a diet low in saturated fat, low in simple carbohydrates, and high in fiber should be used. A combination of aerobic and weight-bearing exercises such as walking, jogging, running, climbing stairs, aerobic dance, bicycling, swimming etc. would definitely help.


14. I am pregnant and due for this coming Sunday. I have been dealing with high blood pressure for the passed two weeks (90 over 130) and a lots of swelling from my face, hands and feet. My Midwife put me on bed rest (no medication) and plan on inducing me on my due date. Is it dangerous for me or the baby?



You may be developing preeclampsia, and in my opinion you need to check your urine proteins too at this time. If you develop other symptoms like headache, changes in the vision, urine output or stomach pain alongwith proteins in the urine, you should immediately contact your midwife and visit the emergency department of the hospital for an early management of preeclampsia, to reduce the risks to your baby and yourself. Further management would depend on how well your baby is doing and the severity of your symptoms. It is always safe to note the activity and movements of your baby and report immediately if you notice any changes in the pattern.


15. Hello, I am a 17-year-old girl with diabetes diagnosed at age 13. My sugar level is sometimes better, sometimes worse, but I keep trying to make it work. Usually it's between 60-230 mgdl, rarely over 250 mgdl; thankfully though, most of the time I manage to keep it around 80-150. Few months ago I found out that I had microalbuminuria and also a little bit higher blood pressure (about 125 over 80 while it'd used to be about 105 over60). My nephrologist recommended taking my BP every day and prescribed me Inhibace: at first 1mg, then changed to 2.5mg and now it's 5mg. The microalbuminuria level dropped after starting the treatment, but now it started going up again. Apart from this I don't have any other health problems nor signs of neuropathy or retinopathy. My question is if I can be sure the kidneys problem appeared due to diabetes, or there are some other possibilities? My nephrologist says it's certainly because of diabetes; unlike my diabetologist, who is convinced that there's no way diabetes caused it so early and that the problem is somewhere else. Thank you. Natalia from Poland
Age: 13-18 years
Sex: Female



Current Medication: Insulin - Humalog 100; Inhibace
Known Allergies: penicillin
Medical History: diabetes diagnosed at age 13; I was born with apgar score: 2





In patients with type 1 diabetes, hypertension is usually caused by underlying diabetic nephropathy and typically becomes manifest about the time that patients develop microalbuminuria or proteinuria. The peak onset of nephropathy in type 1 diabetes is between 10 and 15 years after the onset of the disease.Onset of proteinuria less than 5 years from the documented onset of diabetes may be due to a glomerular disease other than diabetic nephropathy, for example membranous nephropathy, minimal change disease, IgA nephropathy, Henoch-Schonlein purpura, or proliferative glomerulonephritis. In order to confirm the cause of kidney problems, investigative procedures like ultrasound or kidney biopsy may be an option.


1. I was told I have copd about two years ago. I have not had insurance till recently. I do not have a primary doctor. What do I need to to to get the best treatment possible? In other words what do I do next to get treatment? Is there a certin type of doctor I should see? Should I ask for any type of testing to be done? (I was raised in a way where you only went to a doctor if you were going to die, so I really am lost on how to handle all this, thanks for any help and your time)

The specialist that treats lung disorders is known as a Pulmonologist. To see him, a reference from GP is usually required. Also if you are planning to get an insurance coverage anytime soon, it would be best for you to have a family doctor first and then go to the specialist through him, because some insurance companies may not cover a direct specialist treatment. But in case you decide to continue with no insurance coverage, you may want to contact the office of a pulmonologist or a nearby hospital regarding the procedure for an appointment with this specialist. COPD eventually reduces the capacity of lungs and thereby reduce air exchange and breathing capacity. Spirometry is the test of choice for an initial assessment of all the parameters of the lung and follow up with the same is necessary in the management of this disease condition. You need to quit smoking and avoid contact with a person having cold, flu or other infections. Focus on a healthy diet, exercise and keep yourself warm in cold weather to avoid any exacerbations of COPD.

2. Hi, I'm a 27 year old, male, non-smoking college graduate. I have always been in good health, exercise regularly, and rarely get sick. However, I have always worried about my heart health. Sometimes, my heartbeat is irregularly fast even at rest or after a brief walk. These episodes always pass and I end up feeling fine later. Recently after exercising my heart actually felt like it was in pain. Now after three days, my heart still aches, my left arm is sore and the left side of my jaw feels stiff. However, every time I brought this up with my doctor in the past, all blood pressure checks and test turned up nothing. Now that I am out of college I have lost my health insurance and I'm really getting scared. Any help anyone can provide me with would be tremendously appreciated. - Calvin

These episodes of fast heart beats (known as palpitation) may be due to increased feelings of anxiety and stress. You may try to associate (if any) any feelings of anxiety or stress that you experience with the onset of your symptoms. With all your tests being normal, it possibly rules out any cardiac related disorder. Palpitations associated with other symptoms, including sweating, faintness, chest pain or dizziness, indicate irregular or poor heart function and should be investigated. You may want to reduce your anxiety and stress as much as possible to note any improvement in your symptoms. Meditation, yoga and relaxation or breathing exercises would be beneficial alongwith some aerobics like walks, jogging, swimming or bike riding.

3. Hi! I have recently started to experience a persistent pain under my left breast - usually in the mornings, after I get to the office. Once things calm down the pain goes right under my left shoulder blade and makes me quite uncomfortable for some time. I was diagnosed with gelatinous gastritis recently (through biopsy), and have had a chronic anemia for a while (i take an iron supplement every morning). Now Im worried that this pain radiates from a malfunctioning pancreas, or from developing heart desease.... Please help me to understand what I should be looking into. My heart beats rather fast normally (70-100 a minute)... Thank you very much in advance!

In my opinion the pain may be associated with gelatinous gastritis of your stomach, in which there may be erosion or irritation of the lining of the stomach wall involving the stomach fundus, leading to pain and other symptoms. Due to its anatomical location on the upper left side of the abdomen, the pain may be referred to under the left shoulder blade. The range of pulse rate for a healthy adult is between 60 and 100 beats per minute, so your range falls within the normal limits. Also very rarely with the slow progression of gelatinous gastritis, it may involve the nearby tissues which include esophagus or the diaphragm.

4. I am an overweight, non-smoking, 44 year old male. Recently, I have extreme dizziness, reduced vision, and a pounding sound in my ears when I stand from sitting for any length of time. It seems to be getting worse. I currently cannot afford a doctor visit and am worried about this condition. Any ideas? Thank You!

You seem to have what is called, orthostatic or postural hypotension. It occurs due to pooling of venous blood into the lower limbs due to gravity, with any change of position and a simultaneous, temporary reduction in perfusion of the brain. You need to make slow and careful changes in the position and may use compressive stockings to reduce the pooling of blood associated with position changes. You may want to avoid vigorous exercise and hot environments to prevent these symptoms, try to have small frequent meals and keep your head slightly raised using pillows, compared to the rest of your body.

5. I received results from a blood test that show I have a higher than normal level of liver enzymes in my blood. I am a 21 year old male and have no other symptoms and am otherwise healthy. I do not take any medication and I don't drink excessively. However, I might have had something to drink the night before the blood test (approximately 7-8 hours before). Could this have affected the results? I expressed some concern to the doctor, so he did a physical examination (felt my liver on either side), but couldn't feel anything. He said that he isn't worried yet. I am going in for a retest in a few weeks. How concerned should I be?

Yes, drinking (I consider it to be alcohol) the night before your blood test could be a possibility of increase in liver enzymes. Your liver enzymes may settle down slowly within a few days, and you may want to make sure to abstain from drinking, atleast a week before your scheduled blood test.

6. I have been having a lot of palpitations. My heart will speed up, slow down, skip beats all at once. I have them sometime before having a bowel movement, sometime after a bowel movement, and sometimes after I eat certain foods. I can get them too from just bending over. I have a mitral valve prolaspe. This is very scary and uncomfortable. What can I do to help with these?

Your symptom of palpitation may be associated with mitral valve prolapse, which is usually harmless and most patients with this condition do not require treatment. You may want to consult your doctor if the frequency and severity of palpitation and/or other symptoms like fatigue, chest pain, anxiety etc. increase. Most of these symptoms can be effectively treated with the use of beta blocker medications like atenolol, metoprolol and propranolol.

7. I had to have my spleen removed several years ago do to an accident. Last night I was at the home of friends that I unknowingly had just had whooping cough. They were still hacking mildly. I was vaccinated as a child but am wondering if I should go get a booster now or is it too late. Or, should I get on some antibiotics as a preventative? Thanks for any help you can offer.

Immunity following pertusis vaccination is not lifelong. Susceptibility increases 5 to10 years after the last dose of pertussis containing vaccine. If you have been with your friends (who had whooping cough) for several hours, it would be safe to see your doctor for some antibiotics for prevention of pertusis infection. You may also want to schedule for a Tdap vaccine, if you have not had it already.

8. I am a 23-year-old female and 1 and a half years ago I came down with a sudden kidney infection. It occurred overnight, with no warnings--I was nearly hospitalized but then I ended up with home care for a week, where I recieved antibiotics by IV. Over the past few months I have become very tired, and experienced numbness and tingling in my extremities. A blood test revealed that I was low in vitamin b12, so I was getting regular injections. A follow-up blood test revealed that I was now low in iron. However, my doctor did not provide me with a reason as to why these deficiencies would suddenly develop. I am wondering if this has anything to do with my previous kidney infection?

It could be possible that, you might have had the deficiency for a while without being aware of it, because you may not always feel the symptoms unless the deficiency increases with time and eventually produce symptoms. Although infection can cause anemia, it would be due to the destruction of red blood cells and resulting iron deficiency, it may not explain the reason for vitamin B12 deficiency in your body. There may be a possibility of kidney stones that may cause minute bleedings and even urine and kidney infections. Not related to kidneys, other reasons for low iron and vitamin B12 are, reduced absorption or improper diet supplementation, menstrual or other blood loss from the body etc.

9. I have hemophilia factor VIII deficiency. Now I'm interested in playing football my senior year of high school, but have been told that it is too dangerous because of all the risks. What's going through my mind is that "Maybe if I gain more body mass and muscle, I could get a physician and my coaches to approve of me playing," but I'm uncertain of what they'll say. I'm about 6'3 and slightly over 200lbs. So would size help me in this case or is it still to dangerous?


It is highly risky for you to engage in football because of high risk of head injuries and traumatic bleeds due to repeated heavy physical contact. Even though you increase your body mass and muscles, it would not reduce your risks of injury and bleeding, due to its kind of physical force involved in this type of sports.

10. I have a question that I am wondering about. How soon after abortion could one have another abortion?? if you had an abortion 2 months ago? ..

It would depend on how far along were you with the pregnancy at the time of abortion, method used for abortion and how fast your body recovers from the trauma. However the pregnancy hormones may come back to their non pregnancy levels in about 3 to 6 months, maybe even more or less time, depending on what week the abortion was done. You may start to ovulate as early as 2 weeks following an abortion, and may thus get pregnant if you do not use contraception. How safe it is to go for another abortion would depend on your health and recovery from previous abortion.

11. I am 40 years old male suffering from lower back pain. i got digital x ray and conclusion was" slightly reduced L5-S1 disk space with possible spondylitic changes. if sit long time in one posture , my both legs sleep. feel tired soon and can not stand and walk for more than couple of hours. in the morning dont feel energetic. i have very comfortable life style and doing business.

For the management of the lower back pain due to spondylosis, non-surgical treatment options include yoga, massage, physical therapy, analgesics, anti-inflammatory drugs, behavior modification, or nerve block injections. Stretching and strengthening exercises for the back and abdominal muscles can help prevent future recurrences of pain by increasing the strength, flexibility and range of motion. Lumbosacral orthotics may be used to decrease the lumbar load by stabilizing the lumbar spine. If none of these seem to help with your symptoms, you may opt for the available surgical options for treatment.

12. I have azoospermia as per reports attached.I want to know is there are any chances of treatment. I conducted 2 semen test 1st one mentioned below and other one attached In first report Volume was 2 mL Pus cell 2-3 Ph7.5 Turbidity:positive No Sperms 2nd Report Volume .5 Milky white VIScocity Normal LIQ 30 Min Reaction 8 Pus 4-5 Epithelial 2-3 RBC 5-6 Proclatin 16.1 Testosterone By enzyme 3.62 E2 28.86 TSH 2.26 Free Testosterone 13.90 Other Report FSH:14.40 INHIBIN less than 7

Azoospermia characterized by the absence of sperm is either due to anobstruction in the outflow system from the testicle, in the epididymis or vas deferens, or due to a failure in sperm production (spermatogenesis). If a biopsy of the testicle showed that spermatogenesis was normal, this would then indicate that an obstruction was the cause of his azoospermia. The presence of pus cells indicate infection and the FSH

There may be chances of improvement in the results, with treatment of the infection. You may also consult your doctor for a testicular biopsy - to help determine the presence of sperm in the testis, ultrasound examination of the testis and a post ejaculate urinalysis to check for retrograde ejaculation. Your chances may be improved with various treatment options like extraction of the sperm directly from the testicles and use it to fertilize an ovum, medications to stimulate sperm production etc. depending on the cause azoospermia.





13. My son has been having bad upper stomache pain and diarriha. The stomache pain has been going on for about a month but the diarriha has been going on for 7 days. As soon as he gets done eating he has the diarriha. He cant eat very much cause he said it hurts his belly. He has lost 5 pounds in a week. He has all the symptoms of crohn's disease. What do you think? We have an appointment tomarrow.

In my opinion the symptoms of your son may be due to gastritis. It could be caused by H. Pylori infection, physical or mental stress etc. Considerable loss of weight, burning or gnawing feeling, bloating or fullness, loss of appetite, dull ache in the upper abdomen, diarrhea, nausea etc. are the symptoms associated with gastritis. Most of the above symptoms may be present with Crohn’s disease also, but the pain is usually not located in the lower abdomen and blood or mucus may be present in the stools.


14. I am 19 years old and i hardly get my period. I've had it since I was 14, but I can count on two hands how many I have had in my life. I get UTI's sometimes and when I do get my period it is super heavy. I am not very stressed nor am I sick. Should i go to a gyno or am I over reacting?

A visit to gynecologist would be helpful in the determination of the reason for irregular periods. It is possible that the ovaries may not be ovulating with every cycle, and so may be the reason that you have a super heavy flow during the periods in which ovulation occurs, else you may have spottings or no flow at all.

15. I found out this weekend, that my ex (the mother of my son) cheated on me just before we found out she was pregnant. Its been eating away at me and I have to know if he is mine or not. She lied to me about this before, but one of her friends told me this weekend, further reaffirming that he may not be mine. My question is: Are there any paternity tests that can be bought over the counter or on the internet that can give an instant result without having to send it off? I know they are not admissible in court, but I need an answer now, so that I can put this behind me once and for all. I love him and I provide for him, but I need to know the truth.

There are home kits for paternity testing available, that can be bought OTC or online, but with all of them, you are required to collect the sample at the privacy of your home, and send it back to the labs for processing. You may receive the results as early as 2 to 5 days. Yet another method for determination of the paternity is through blood types, but it is not consistent enough for definitive paternity test results. By knowing the blood types of the mother, alleged father and the child, you may be able to estimate the possibility of your paternity to the child, but it may not provide you any confirmation of the outcome. For example: two O blood type parents can produce a child with only O blood type. Two parents with A blood type can produce a child with either A or O blood types. Two parents with B blood type can produce a child with either B or O blood type. One parent with A and another with B can produce a child with A, B, AB or O blood types. If one parent has A and another has AB, they can either produce a child with A, B or AB blood types. If one parent has A and another has O, they can either produce a child with A or O blood types.


1. My husband is HIV positive and I am not, what are the proper steps to prevent HIV from spreading to the baby.


HIV is not transmitted through everyday social contact. The transmission occurs through sexual contact, through intravenous drug use and sharing of needles, through infected blood donations and from mother to child during pregnancy, birth and breastfeeding. While HIV may live for a short while outside of the body, the transmission may not occur as a result of contact with spillages or small traces of blood, semen or other body fluids. This is partly because HIV dies quite quickly once exposed to the air, and also because spilled fluids would have to get into a person's bloodstream to infect them.

2. I just had a sudden onset of pain in my right calf. I hurts more when I dorsi flex my foot....should I address this now or call my doctor in the morning?

Pain with dorsiflexion may be due to deep vein thrombosis. If left untreated, the thrombus may become fragmented or dislodged and migrate to obstruct the arterial supply to the lung, causing potentially life-threatening complications like pulmonary embolism.
If there are associated symptoms like swelling, redness and pain, it may indicate formation of blood clots and should not be ignored. You should contact your doctor right away in such cases. Symptoms like shortness of breath or chest pain should further be concerning and seeking immediate medical treatment is recommended.

3. I have a heart murmur (Ventricular Septal Defect) and I need antibiotics before any tattoo's. I am wanting to get a large full sleeve tattoo. This would require around 2 hours of work every week for about 6 weeks. As this is every week, what antibiotics can I take and how often would I be able to take them?

Antibiotic doses pre- and post-operatively have been recommended for patients with high-risk cardiac lesions who are undergoing surgical manipulation of eroded skin, manipulation of infected skin, and for those with a distant skin infection. If you do not have pre existing infection you may not require antibiotics, but you need to make sure that the tattooing is carried out in a sterile manner with a new needle and all necessary precautions. After care of the area with lubiderm, bacitracin, A&D ointment, Polysporin 2 to 3 times a day until it is healed in about 2 to 4 weeks is absolutely important for prevention of any entry of infection. In case of any doubts of contamination of the wound during or after the procedure, you might want to consult your doctor for antibiotics. The most commonly used antibiotics are cloxacillin, amoxicillin or a first generation cephalosporin like cefazolin, cefadroxil etc.

4. Dear Ask the Docor, Every parent drinks occasionally around their children and during the day. But I've noticed my mom starting to drink about 4 of her 'home made' margaritas a day after work. And she gets buzzed and sometimes drunk. Is this okay for her health? She's 45, and it's just concerning, plus, she's trying to loose weight but she's geting larger, is the alcohol reversing her diet? Sincerely, Shannon

Females should not exceed 2 drinks per day with a maximum of up to 9 drinks per week, each drink amounting to 13. 6 gms. Your mother needs to reduce the amount of alcohol in her margarita recipe or cut down the number of drinks to the recommendation as above else it may lead to health and other problems. Excessive intake of alcohol leads to weight gain, not solely because of their own calories, but also because of the calories they inspire you to consume later. Alcohol lowers your inhibition so you end up feeling like you can eat anything and everything you see. Lowering her alcohol intake would help control any weight changes and keep her healthy.

5. 29 year old female with history of depression, OCD and PTSD from sexual trauma. I can not let my husband near me. I don't want to be touched, hugged, kissed, looked at longingly or anything! How so I move past this?

It is important to be able to identify what triggers you and it will likely be best if you attempt to avoid your triggers altogether if they tend to trigger debilitating emotions, but you will find that they will not trigger as dramatically as you pursue treatment. You need to find a psychiatrist or a psychotherapist to help you move out of this traumatic experience. There are a few different models for therapy your therapist might use, including Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT), Psychodynamic Therapy, Group therapy or sometimes therapists would use a mixture of methods specified to what works best for you as the patient. You may try some of the community health services like yoga, meditation, acupuncture, massage, all of which can be enormously helpful with the release of stress and adjustment of your body and emotions with the realization of different abilities and skills in yourself.

6. Can you survive with only one lung? and how? what care does the client needs to have?

Yes you can. Both lungs in your body function as separate entities, and removal of one would lead to increase in the capacity and size of the remaining one in order to compensate for the lost function. Only having one lung would reduce the amount of strenuous activity you can do and need to take precautions about a few things like pollution, second hand smoke, exposure to chemicals, fumes from cleaning products and aerosols, dust and exposure to any infection.

7. Hello I am being tested for autoimmune disease, my lab result for ERYTHROCYTE SEDIMENTATION RATE, AUTOMATED is 1 mm over the normal range and so far all my other labs seem to be normal, does this mean I have autoimmune disease? Is there other labs that should be taken? My doctor did not order and ANA.

Autoimmune disorders are diseases caused when the immune system cease to recognize one or more of the body's normal constituents as "self" and create antibodies that attack its own cells, tissues, and/or organs. This causes inflammation and damage which is indicated by a raised ESR test. However, ESR can increase with any any cause or focus of inflammation in the body other than autoimmune conditions. Thus in your case it does not mean that you have an autoimmune disorder and it is best used as a supportive test rather than a diagnostic test and your doctor would usually order more specific tests for the diagnosis of autoimmune disorders based on your symptoms and presentation.

8. I just found out I have Herpes Type 2. I have been in a relationship for 4 years, we have a 2 year old together. He claims he has not cheated nor have I. Is it possible that I have had this for year and not known it? Also, why did they not test me for Herpes durring the precnancy?

Most people infected with HSV-2 are not aware of their infection because they never have sores, or they have very mild signs that they do not even notice or that they mistake for insect bites or another skin condition. You are not routinely tested for herpes during pregnancy unless you develop lesions. Once infected the virus stays lifelong and produce outbreaks at times. It is the active lesions that can transmit infection to your baby on contact during normal vaginal delivery, and so in such cases C-section is advised to prevent transmission to the baby.

9. My periods had stopped, more than 3 years, now its back but with bad cramps and large blood clots is this normal? I am 56.

Its not normal to have periods once you have had your menopause. There may be some underlying cause that may be causing you to bleed, and large blood clots with cramps is concerning and may be due to endometrial polyp or cancer etc. You should see a gynecologist as soon as possible for early diagnosis and treatment.

10. For the past 5-6 months I have been on a diet of 750-1000 calories a day. I have finally reached I weight I am happy with and am slowly coming off the diet but for the past 2 months I have had no period. I'm not underweight though my BMI is at the bottom range of healthy (about 19 or 20). In the past 6 months I have lost around 30lbs. Could the cause of my amenorrhea be my weight loss and if I start to eat more will my periods return?

Drastic weight loss, improper diet, increased exercise are common causes for no periods. Your periods would probably return once you come off the diet plan completely and get back to your normal diet intake as before.

11. About a month ago, I discovered a lump on the right side of my neck, about the size of a thumb nail. In the following days, a smaller lump appeared on the back of my head and one on my scalp. My neck was quite stiff and my scalp was tender. After about a week, the right side of my throat became quite sore. Then a few days later, my throat cleared up and the lumps disappeared as quickly as they had arrived. I now have a larger lump, about one inch long and half an inch wide, on the left side of my neck, as well as a smaller one on the back of my neck and one on my head. This time, my eyes are quite strained, and I am unusually tired. I have had these new lumps for about a week, and have just developed a sore throat (on only the left side, under the main largest lump) as before. Because of this, I am expecting these new lumps to disappear of their own accord soon, like the first lot. The lumps themselves are solid (the ones on my head feel like bone) and are quite tender. I have read a variety of diagnoses online, but cannot find anything that mentions lumps appearing and disappearing like mine seem to be. Any information or assistance would be appreciated. Thank-you.

Lumps are the lymph nodes that swell and become tender when you have an infection at an area close to these nodes. Thus with the clearance of the infection these nodes get back to normal and disappear. However, there may be other conditions associated with the enlargement of the nodes like a tumour at a nearby location, lymphoma, cat scratch fever etc. If the feel of these nodes is hard, it may indicate an underlying malignant process and a visit to your doctor may certainly help in early diagnosis.

12. Hi, for the past three weeks I have being experiencing pain in my left testicle which is quite uncomfortable. i also have back pain, particularly in my lower back and my left groin. I also get pains in my left leg. I do not have any pain urinating and there is no blood in the urine either. It does not hurt when I walk, mostly when I sit down. I have cramps in my stomach aswell. There is no discharge from the penis or do i feel the need to urinate frequently or at all. I feel slightly dizzy sometimes (this only been the case for the past 2 days, in which I am fine now). There is no blood in the urine either. Is it an infection of the testicle, epididymis or prostate. I am very worried about this!

It does not seem to be an infection, it may instead be due to a developing tumour in the testicle, which usually produces symptoms of pain in the lower back, groin, and the testis, swelling and a mass may also be present with the progression of the condition. You should contact your doctor for an initial assessment of the area and related symptoms, and a reference to the specialist.

13. I have always had regular periods even though i suffer from polycistic ovaries, except this month. my period strated within 2 weeks from the last one and the bleeding was very excessive. please help, what could be the problem? i am 28 years old and married.

Periods within 2 weeks af the previous one and along with heavy bleeding may be due to hormonal imbalance, infection or tumour, but it may also be due to very early miscarraige, if there was any possibility of pregnancy due to a contraception failure or may be due to an unprotected sex. If the heavy bleeding continues for long or is associated with severe cramps, you might want to see your doctor for treatment.


1. Why I can't give tetracycline to patiet of renal failure?

Tetracycline is eliminated by the kidney to various extent. Patients with renal impairment may be at greater risk for tetracycline-associated renal toxicity (increased BUN with consequent azotemia, hyperphosphatemia, and acidosis) due to decreased drug clearance. In patients with renal impairment, therapy with tetracycline should be administered cautiously at reduced dosages. Clinical monitoring of renal function is recommended, and serum tetracycline levels may be necessary during prolonged therapy.

2. My family on my dad's side runs ramped with colon cancer. We lost our great uncle to it at the age of 65 (I think) and my father is fighting a four year battle with stage 4 colon cancer at the age of 57. His brother was 43 and had a polyp that was just about to go cancerous. My father's doctor in fact said that I should start the screening at 35 because it's a matter of when not if I will get it. So my question is when is too soon to start getting checked? Along with the grim family history I also have IBS which I heard adds to the chances. I am 20 and just after watching my dad go through this and knowing it will eventually get him it just nags at the back of my head "When is it my turn?" So am I over reacting or are my worries justified and I should check before 35 even. I know cancer is hard to get a good idea of over the internet but your best advice would help.

You indeed have a strong family history of colon cancer. It is recommended to start screening at the age of 50 or 10 years before the earliest diagnosis of cancer in your family. So you may start screening at the age of 34 or 35, since it is highly likely that you may eventually be getting this cancer.

3. Hi, I'm an 18 year old guy turning 19 soon. And I have had this little round lumpy looking thing on my inner thigh for possibly a few months now.. The last time I had sex was in September of last year. This lump wouldn't have been there till approximately Late November or Early December.

The lump seems to be cherry angioma, which is the most common vascular lesion to appear on human skin. It is made up of a cluster of dilated capillaries on the surface of the skin, which accounts for the cherry-red or purple color. It may be painless and harmless but bleed profusely when injured, so don't puncture or try to remove it yourself. Your doctor may remove it by electrosurgery, cryotherapy or laser vaporization.

4. I am a 45 year old male the problem i have is chest pain only when i deep breathe or exercise. I have been to my family doctor several times and also to my heart doctor. I have had all the necessary test to eliminate any heart condition but pain still exists sometimes it is so sharp that it stops my exercise routine and now its getting to the point of me not wanting to do it anymore. The pain usually start on my left side of the center part of my chest and as i progress it gets worst on someday i can work my way thru it meaning that the pain get better the longer i go and if i stop it only takes about 20 to 30 seconds to recover from this. I am currently at a lost i don't know what my next step is i was told by a second family doctor that maybe its something i have to live with i refuse to believe that i know i am not the only one with this problem i would be very grateful and open to any new suggestion.

The description of your pain suggests chest muscle pain or tenderness, which occurs with certain movements or exercise and relieves within seconds with the restoration of the position or relaxation of the muscle. The underlying cause could be due to trauma from blunt force injury, muscle strain from overuse or muscle spasms, cramping caused by overuse, dehydration, mental stress or anxiety. Rest and analgesic medications like ibuprofen would help with your symptoms. You may start with mild stretches and breathing exercises, slowly increasing your daily workouts to allow sufficient time for the muscles to heal and get back to normal.

5. I take Zoloft for PMDD but have put on a lot of weight. I was wondering if there are other meds I could take that won't make me put weight on. I was looking at Effexor, Cymbalta and Pristiq, but can't find a lot of info on their effectiveness for PMDD. Can you give me some info?

Experts say that for up to 25% of people, most antidepressant medications (it doesn't occur with every drug or for every person) can cause a weight gain of 10 pounds or more. Both appetite and metabolism may be affected leading to weight gain. You may opt for intermittent treatment, that is only take the antidepressant medication during the 14-day premenstrual period, which may cause fewer side effects. Effexor, cymbalta and pristiq are a group of SNRI drugs (from the class of antidepressants), that cause loss of appetite and weight, but as mentioned above for antidepressants, they may produce weight gain in some individuals. Bottom line is a healthy diet and exercise that can help control your weight gain and also improve your depression, which in turn may help you to cut down on your medication and that in turn make weight loss easier

6. I am 88 years old with type2 Diabetes a bad back and find it difficult to exercise. I currently take Januvia and Insulin my sugar is still high.Any suggestions.

Because of the normal physiological changes associated with aging it makes the recognition and treatment of diabetes problematic. Alterations in carbohydrate metabolism, changes in the pharmacokinetics (drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and clearance) of both insulin and oral medications must be considered. Also insulin secretion appears to decrease with age, with increase in glucose intolerance and insulin resistance than young individuals. Thus, there is an interplay between decreased insulin secretion and increased insulin resistance that largely explains the abnormal glucose metabolism seen in elderly. Management of diabetes involves an assessment of the overall health condition and a treatment plan worked out to suit your needs and quality lifestyle.

7. Hi 36 years ago I had 85% of my thryroid removed. I have never needed to go on medication and my levels varied but never enough to warrant medication. Recently I had my blood tested and my TSH came back at 13. Usually it has always been between 4 - 6. My question is that I have been experiencing mood swings. I am talking about going from extreme anger and saying things I would never norammly say to feelings of sadness and crying. Could this be because of the sudden change in my TSH level? Please advise


Your mood swings seem less likely to be due to the raised TSH levels. If you had partial/subtotal hysterectomy (uterus is removed, leaving the cervix and ovaries intact) or total hysterectomy (uterus and the cervix are removed, but not the ovaries), you would undergo normal menopause with the decreasing function of the ovaries and related hormonal fluctuations, similar to a women with intact uterus except that you won’t have any menstrual or bleeding changes to mark the onset or completion of menopause. Even women with one ovary may experience similar symptoms of menopause. Thus if the hysterectomy you had, falls in either of the types mentioned above, your symptoms are likely to be associated with the hormonal changes of menopause, else further investigation may be required as to what other hormones and associated organs have been affected.


8. I had sex for the first time about 3 days ago and he wore a condom. then after we were done he took it off and he was around my vagina and almost in it. He did not ejaculate inside of me but I am scared of getting pregnant. Do you think I should take the morning after pill? or are my chances of getting pregnant not that high?


Your chances of getting pregnant would depend on what phase of the menstrual cycle you were in at the time you had sex. I mean if it was almost a week after you had ovulation or if your periods are regular and you are to have your periods in about a weeks time, you might be safe. If you are not sure about the timings of your ovulation and your cycle it would be safe to take the morning after pill.


9. I have acne on my back and upper arms and sometimes i will pick the pimple until it bleeds and a scab forms i really want to get rid of it what can i do that is cheap yet affective and quick??please help!!!


You should try to avoid the temptation of picking your bacne, else it would spread to other areas of back and arms. Wash your back with an anti-bacterial cleanser formulations available OTC and pat dry completely before you put on your clothes. It would be best to wear non-clinging, light clothing in order to avoid sweat andmaintain blood circulation. avoiding fast food, having a balanced diet, drinking lots of water and exercising would help. Some of the topical treatments that can be used are topical erythromycin, clindamycin, benzoyl peroxide, 2% salicylic acid, tretinoin.


10. I got hit by a line drive on the top on my right foot last week. It hurt at the time but the next day it felt fine. when I woke up this morning my foot was very swollen and I can't walk on it. I have not injured my foot since the initial injury.


In my opinion you should get your foot examined by your doctor or if possible an orthopedic specialist for the condition of the skin, presence of pulses, circulation, sensation and movements in the area. There may be several reasons for the swelling like inflammation of the soft tissues or bone, injury to the blood vessel, cellulitis or a stress fracture etc. all of which needs clinical examination and investigations like Xrays or MRI for accurate diagnosis.


11. I usually have my period every other month. I have not had it since the beginning of February. I am sexually active. I have taken three pregnancy tests, which were all negative. Is there a chance I am pregnant? If not what would be causing me to miss my period?


If you have taken home pregnancy tests all 3 times, I would suggest that you go for a blood pregnancy test which very sensitive and accurate for confirmation. The very first reason of missed periods in a sexually active women is always considered pregnancy, unless ruled out otherwise with negative blood or ultrasound results. Other reasons for missed periods could be extreme weight changes, increased physical or mental stress, irregular food habits and decreased nutrition, anemia, ovarian cyst, etc.


12. Having abnormal periods. Should I see a doctor? I went November 2010 for a well womens check up. Told her I was having heavy periods lasting longer than 7 days with very very painful cramps. She said my pap smear was normal and to take ibuprofen during menstruation.


You need to see a doctor, since it is not normal to bleed heavily for more than 3 days of a regular cycle, and in such cases investigation of the underlying cause and its treatment is absolutely necessary to reduce blood loss and complications like anemia, fatigue etc. Causes include stress, infection, miscarriage, endometrial hyperplasia, fibroid, polyp etc.


13. How soon can you have sex after a yeast infection? i just finished the gel that you insert for 5 nights this is the 6th night. i took the yeast infection pill 5 days ago. I feel fine today but should i wwait a little longer? How long?


You may have sex after completion of the recommended dose for treatment and you feel better. You may want to make sure your partner is uninfected or you may be reinfected. If he has any signs of yeast infection on the tip of the penis like itching, discharge etc, he may want to see the doctor for treatment before both of you can have sex.


14. Hey, I have been having problems at school involving bulling. Because of this I seem to feel sick in school, my stomach feel tight sometimes and I seem to be shaky most of the time. This has been going on for a while now.


The best strategy is to build the confidence and self-esteem in yourself. You need to get involved in school, to join clubs, drama, charity organizations and also get involved outside of school, like a church youth group. Socialize and make new friends. You need to stop giving people what they want and when they won’t be able to find any victim in you, they will soon stop. Exercise and have a healthy diet. You may join a gym or go for jogging, walking, bike riding,swimming etc. Meditation, yoga and breathing exercises would certainly help you relax and increase your confidence. Good Luck!


15. Rectal bleeding heavily bright red,everytime i have bowell movement for two days now should i go to hospital


You need to hospital or see a doctor for clinical examination of the anal region and per rectal examination, to assess and diagnose the condition. The bleeding may likely be due to hemorrhoids, and if symptoms like bleeding, pain or infection develop, early treatment with antibiotics, topical ointments or surgical removal of the hemorrhoids is recommended to prevent complications.


16. I just found out that my mom has uterine cancer. I was wondering what her odds of surviving and getting rid of it are.


There are many factors that affect the outcome from uterine cancer including, the type and location of the cancer, the stage of the disease (the extent to which the cancer has metastasized, or spread), its grade (how abnormal the cancer cells look and how quickly the cancer is likely to grow and spread), the person's age, general health, and response to treatment. Treatment options for uterine cancer are surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy and hormonal therapy. She may receive more than one type of treatment. It's important to take very good care of herself before, during, and after cancer treatment such as eating well in order to get the right amount of calories to maintain a good weight and strength in the body. Her treating doctor would be the best person to discuss the outcomes in her situation, since each case is different and treatment varies depending on individual age, health and stage of cancer.


17. On this past Saturday I developed a cold sore on the side of my mouth, now mind you, I remember getting one at 10 and I wasnt sexually active.I thought it was a pimple and tried to pop it and broke the skin in the process and now it looks disgusting. I have been in a monogamous relationship with a man and when I developed this sore it was right after we slept together (Thursday 2 days later). He tells me he has never had an outbreak before and has gotten one right after we saw each other on Monday. I bought a pack of Zicam and he has something but I didnt know if this was the right treatment and if it can be transfered to his genitals?

The virus that causes cold sores is known as the herpes simplex virus (HSV). There are two types of HSV, type 1 and type 2. Cold sores are usually caused by type 1. The type 2 virus is the one that causes genital lesions and is transmitted sexually. Herpes simplex infections are contagious. The virus is spread from person to person by kissing or other close contact with sores or even from contact with apparently normal skin that is shedding the virus. Infected saliva is also a means of transmitting the virus. People are most contagious when they have active blister-like sores, and you can catch the virus if you come into direct contact with the cold sore blisters or the fluid inside them, which contains a high number of the viruses. This can easily happen through touching the hands of someone who has touched their blisters. Once the blisters have stopped oozing or have crusted over, the person is no longer contagious. Never touch active lesions in other people (through kissing or oral sex). When cold sores are active, wash your hands frequently to avoid passing the virus on to others. The virus typically resides in a dormant state within the body's nerve cells. The body's immune system is normally able to keep the virus in its inactive state. When an infected person is exposed to a "trigger," or if the immune system is weakened, then the virus quickly multiplies and produces sores usually on the lips. There is no known cure for cold sores. Most people don't need treatment, since cold sores go away on their own, but some medications may be helpful like an antiviral medication, can be applied in an ointment form or taken orally to reduce the severity and duration of the lesions.


1. I was bit by a squirrel today. No blood. Should I get a shot or something. I had tetanus two years back.

Clean, minor wounds need a booster if it has been more than 5 years since last tetanus vaccine. Since you had the shot 2 years back, you may not require one at this time. Also bites from a squirrel are not considered a risk for rabies unless the animal was sick or behaving in an unusual manner, and rabies is widespread in the area. However you may feel a few flu like symptoms for a few days. It would be safe to see your doctor if the wound area of the bite is large, red, swollen, painful etc. or if there is any suspicion of rabies in your area.

Clean, minor wounds need a booster if it has been more than 5 years since last tetanus vaccine. Since you had the shot 2 years ago, you may not require one at this time. Also bites from a squirrel are not considered a risk for rabies unless the animal was sick or behaving in an unusual manner, and rabies is widespread in the area. However you may feel a few flu like symptoms for a few days. It would be safe to see your doctor if the wound area of the bite is large, red, swollen, painful etc. or if there is any suspicion of rabies in your area.



2. Hello was wondering if i'm 5 weeks pregnant will you be able to see my baby in ultrasound ?

5 weeks would be too early to see your baby in its full form, however you may be able to see the gestational sac or the fetal pole, that is the your developing baby. You might have to wait up to 12 weeks to see your baby on ultrasound.

5 weeks would be too early to see your baby in its full form, however you may be able to see the gestational sac or the fetal pole, that is the developing baby. You might have to wait up to 8 - 10 weeks to see your baby on ultrasound.

3. Hi, about twenty years ago, when my daughter was tested fo Cystic Fibrosis because of her small size. She was not quite 5 feet and weighted under 100 pounds and still is. She had her share of childhood diseases but nothing excessive. Well, the result for high normal. The pedriatrician at the time suggested it could mean she was a carrier but we have no Cystic Fibroisis in our family. Well, she is 32 years old now and pregnant, should we be concerned. Marlene

The only way to get CF is to have two genes that cause CF—one from your mother and one from your father. This means that both parents are CF carriers. A CF carrier has only one CF gene and has no CF symptoms. You could inherit the CF gene from one of your parents and never even know it.
If only one parent from a couple is a CF carrier, none of the children will have CF. But there is a 50-50 chance that each child will be a symptomless carrier.
When both parents carry the CF gene, there is a 25% chance (1 in 4) that their child will have CF. There is a 50-50 chance that the child will be a carrier like the parents. And there is a 25% chance that the baby will not have the gene—not a carrier and not have the disease.


The only way to get CF is to have two genes that cause CF—one from your mother and one from your father. This means that both parents are CF carriers. A CF carrier has only one CF gene and has no CF symptoms. You could inherit the CF gene from one of your parents and never even know it.
If only one parent from a couple is a CF carrier, none of the children will have CF. But there is a 50-50 chance that each child will be a symptomless carrier.
When both parents carry the CF gene, there is a 25% chance (1 in 4) that their child will have CF. There is a 50-50 chance that the child will be a carrier like the parents. And there is a 25% chance that the baby will not have the gene—not a carrier and not have the disease.



4. How much should a 5'5 small frame 56 year old female supposed to weigh

Ideal body weight is calculated based on your height, and in your case with given height and age, would be 52.8 kg or 116.16 lbs.

Ideal body weight is calculated based on your height. In this case, the ideal weight would be 52.8 kg or 116.16 lbs based on the given height.

5. My boyfriend was recently diagnosed with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. I did some research, and he also has nearly all of the symptoms of heart block and many symptoms of heart failure. He also has other health problems, like an enlarged heart. Whenever he has an episode with his heart, he gets very dizzy, nauseous, has chest pain and cold sweats, and eventually has a blackout. Is there anything that I can do to help alleviate these symptoms when they occur?

Your boyfriend needs to avoid any known stimulants, caffeine, nicotine, alcohol and smoking. Exercise regularly and control stress. Some relaxation techniques include muscle relaxation, deep breathing and meditation. Have a diet low in cholesterol, fat and salt. The treatment goals for Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome are to slow a fast heart rate when it occurs and prevent future episodes. A fast heartbeat may correct itself, however, medication or other medical treatment may be required to slow down the heartbeat. A few physical methods to slow down heartbeat during the episode include:

  • a vagal maneuver during an episode of a fast heartbeat such as coughing, bearing down as if you are having a bowel movement, and putting an ice pack or splashing cold water on the face. These maneuvers increase the tone of the vagus nerve on the heart and this increased vagal tone stimulates release of substances that decrease the heart rate, which can break the abnormal electrical circuit.
  • lie down and relax to assist body in slowing your heart rate. Take some slow, deep breaths. Often, heart will slow by itself.
  • Carotid massage which involves gently pressing and rubbing the carotid sinus, located in your neck just under the angle of the jaw. Carotid massage can release chemicals to slow heart rate.

It is recommended that you consult his doctor for an opinion and advice to be followed during an episode in his case.

6. I am 9 weeks pregnant. Due to insurance issues, the clinic will not see me before June 1. I will be 15 weeks along by the time of the appointment. My last doctor (before moving) recommended being seen for the initial pregnancy appointment between 10 to 12 weeks. My question is, is it fine to wait until 15 weeks to be seen for the first time or do I need to find another clinic that will see me before that?

It is recommended that the initial visit be made within 12 weeks, for an assessment of your health and the health and development of your baby. Also certain blood and screening tests, estimation of your due date, doppler examination of your baby’s heart sounds and determination of any risk factors that may be present, are all done during this first visit. Yet another reason for the visit by 12 weeks, is that the dating ultrasound, which is carried out at, or shortly after, the initial visit, is more accurate if you are between 8 and 12 weeks pregnant. Thus it is important to make the first visit by atleast 12 weeks of pregnancy, for the early diagnosis of the risk factors, their management and monitor the development of your baby.

It is recommended that the initial visit be made within 12 weeks, for an assessment of your health and the health and development of your baby. Also, certain blood and screening tests, estimation of your due date, doppler examination of your baby’s heart sounds and determination of any risk factors that may be present, are all done during this first visit. Yet another reason for the visit by 12 weeks, is that the dating ultrasound, which is carried out at, or shortly after the initial visit, is more accurate if you are between 8 and 12 weeks pregnant. Thus it is important to make the first visit by atleast 12 weeks of pregnancy, for early diagnosis of the risk factors, their management and monitor the development of your baby.



7. Hello, Doctor. I am an 18 year old male, 162 pounds, 5 foot 11 inches. I have been getting serious calf cramps for 3 years now. They always occur after I do some kind of activity involving the use of the calf muscles. They don't occur sometimes, they ALWAYS occur after that, without fail, and this condition has prevented me from playing any sports, doing most cardio exercises, and even just running. After 30 seconds or a minute of jogging, I will feel a cramp coming on and I'll have to stop. Sometimes, if I do run just a little bit during the day, hours later I will sit for a long time and when I get up my calves will explode with a cramp. I have asked several doctors what this could be, and they all give me answers like I should just drink water and stretch. I DO drink a lot water, and I DO stretch. I'm beginning to think my doctors aren't taking me seriously because they just brush off my cramps as common and that everyone gets them. I'm tired of hearing that answer, because I seriously can't do anything physically challenging with friends or by myself and nothing has worked. I was picking up branches in my yard today and even walking with much weight on me the (branches) caused me to get a cramp. I am going to college this fall and I really wanted to take part in some of the intramural sports, but by the way things are looking, there is no chance of that. Even walking around campus may cause problems. Doing some online research, I suspected my problem might be atherosclerosis or peripheral artery disease, but one doctor told me I was way too young and would have had to be overweight and on a terrible diet for many years to achieve that. It should be noted I am allergic to most fruits, veggies, nuts, and fish, so I have not eaten a lot of those growing up. I've almost completely avoided fruits and veggies up until 2 or 3 years ago. Since then, I have been trying to take vitamins and eat the foods that don't give me a big allergic reaction. I really need to figure out why this is happening to me. Any help is much appreciated.

There are probably several different reasons why cramp occurs, which include imbalance of minerals such as sodium, calcium, magnesium or potassium or foot problems such as high arches or flat feet, or by ill-fitting shoes. Eating a well-balanced, healthy diet with appropriate levels of minerals would definitely be beneficial in the control and prevention of cramps. There are things you can do yourself to relieve muscle spasm. Try stretching and gently massaging the muscle. grab hold of your calf muscle with one hand and pull back on your toes with the other to point your toes upwards. This helps to relieve the cramp. Stretching your calf muscles regularly will help to stop you getting leg cramps. t also helps to drink lots of water or squash before, during and after you exercise or play sport. This keeps you hydrated and replaces the salt you lose when you sweat.Warm water also works well when relaxing leg cramps, so consider immersing your leg in a warm bath.

There are probably several different reasons why cramp occurs, which include imbalance of minerals such as sodium, calcium, magnesium or potassium, or foot problems such as high arches or flat feet, or by ill-fitting shoes. Eating a well-balanced, healthy diet with appropriate levels of minerals would definitely be beneficial in controlling and preventing cramps.

There are things you can do yourself to relieve muscle spasm. Try stretching and gently massaging the muscle. grab hold of your calf muscle with one hand and pull back on your toes with the other to point your toes upwards. This helps to relieve the cramp. Stretching your calf muscles regularly will help to stop you from getting leg cramps. It also helps to drink lots of water or juice before, during and after you exercise or play sport. This keeps you hydrated and replaces the salt you lose when you sweat.Warm water also works well when relaxing leg cramps, so consider immersing your leg in a warm bath.


8. 2.5 weeks ago I stepped on a piece of glass on the bottom of my foot. The cut was fairly deep, but I didn't get it checked out. It seems to be healing ok I used neosporin. Its closed now, nothing has oozed out of it, and there is no red line..but it still hurts when I walk on it and even sometimes when I don't, Its not a lot of pain..but noticable. Is this normal? should I see a doctor?

You should probably see your doctor to make sure if there is any piece of glass still left in there or it could get infected in time, if left inside. If required, an Xray of the foot may help in finding the cause of pain.

9. It's going on three years since my CABG x3 and 1 stent. Ever since, I get inflammation every 4 - 6 weeks in my chest, manifesting itself mainly as chest pain (hurts to breathe), a couple of times as pericarditis, and one time as a pleural effusion. My only course of treatment is ibuprofen and when that fails, a 10 day course of prednisone. I use prednisone more often than not. My cardiologists prescribed me colchicine, but after three weeks of it, my stomach became painfully sensitive to it. My doctors have basically given up. Oh by the way, I also have arrhythmia problems (a-fib and SVT). These arrhythmia problems occur only when I have inflammation. I'm seeing an electrophysiologist for the arrhythmia problems. Right now, he's not as certain as I am about the inflammation causing the arrhythmia. After I became tolerant of several heart medicines, he did an ablation. The arrhythmia (along with inflammation) came back. Right now I am on sotalol; however, my heart is now in brachycardia. The electrophysiologist is now contemplating a pacemaker. I'm saying to myself whoa horsey. Am I wrong to think the inflammation is the culprit? Whom should I turn to about this chronic inflammation? I once was referred to a rheumatologist. She said I had the wrong doctor.

Being on prednisone most of the time could be the underlying cause for both inflammation and arrhythmias or bradycardia.You need to talk to your doctor about
the tapered withdrawal of the drug and if you could go for any other medication in its place for your symptoms. Prednisone makes you more susceptible to illnesses, especially if you take it for an extended period of time. It may cause an elevation in blood pressure and increase salt and water retention, so you may need to restrict the use of salt and other necessary precautions while on this medication.

Being on prednisone most of the time could be the underlying cause for both inflammation and arrhythmias or bradycardia.You need to discuss with your doctor about tapered withdrawal of the drug and if you could go for any other medication in its place for your symptoms. Prednisone makes you more susceptible to illnesses, especially if you take it for an extended period of time. It may cause an elevation in blood pressure and increase salt and water retention, so you may need to restrict the use of salt and other necessary precautions while on this medication.


10. I have Hidradenitis suppurativa and need help. I am too scared and ashamed to go To the doc. I have self diagnosed myself. And know this is it. . I have let it get to stage 3 and am soo depressed. I have been pregnant and amNow currently breast feeding. Is their any point going to a doctor when there is no cure? I am in so much pain and scared of losing my fiancee through all this. . Any advice would be great. . Lately i have even considered suicide. I have been through soo much already am only 23 PLEASE HELP ME :(

The exact cause of hidradenitis suppurativa is unclear, but hormonal effects, obesity, stress, smoking, genetics are some of the factors known to be associated with this condition. You may follow the below mentioned measures for better outcomes,
  • Wash and clean with antiseptics to reduce the spread of bacteria.
  • Wear loose fitting clothing to avoid friction.
  • Follow a low glycaemic diet, and aim for ideal body weight.
  • Don't smoke.
  • Treatment with topical or oral antibiotics, steroids, birth control pills or a combination of any of these helps.
  • surgical drainage or excision and grafting
  • laser treatment

Thus it would be beneficial to see a dermatologist for a suitable treatment plan in your case. Although recurrences occur, remission periods could be sufficiently increased by improving your overall health, with a well balanced diet, avoiding stress, aerobics, meditation, yoga, breathing exercises or other relaxation techniques.

11. My first day of my last period was March 24th 2011 am on a 28 day cycle. from what i understand my ovulation was the 1st of april to the 6ths. i had sex with Guy A during said ovulation and Guy B on the 7th is there anyway that Guy A is the farther?

Your ovulation date is normally 14 days before the start of your next period.Thus your ovulation date is most likely Apr 7, 2011, which means you are likely to be fertile between 5th and 10th of April 2011. If you had sex with Guy A between 1st and 6th of April, that would be before you may have ovulated, but since sperms live longer inside, there are chances that he might be the father. But more chances are that the Guy B is the father. However Chances of Guy A being a father cannot be ruled out.

12. I am a 21 yr old athelete and play college basketball. I have been having pain in my back on what feels like the last rib on my left rib cage, for about 3 weeks now. The pain is bearable but hurts alot when i press against it, i can feel some pain aswell when i try to lean my upper body right. When i exercise i can feel it there, but the pain is minimum. ... What is it? and what would be the best treatment?

It seems to be the inflammation of the rib bone or the cartilage. You need to take anti inflammatory medication like ibuprofen, to reduce the inflammation and the pain. If the pain does not improve after taking the medication for a few days you should see your doctor for an Xray and further investigation of the cause.

13. I am a 21 yr old athelete and play college basketball. I have been getting sharpe pain in my lower right knee located below my knee cap and what seems to be the start of my shin bone, what i think could be the tibia. This pain is getting worse and worse, it has its good days and bad, and sometimes i do not notice it until i start to run around. What is this pain? and what would be the best treatment for it?

Your knee pain seems to be due to the overuse injury that results from repetitive overloading and injury of the patellar tendon, a condition called Jumper’s knee, that occurs in many types of athletes but is most common in sports such as basketball, volleyball, or soccer, which require explosive jumping movements. Resting the injured area until the symptoms have subsided is very important. Icing the knee, wearing a knee support or strap, elevating the knee when it hurts (for example, placing a pillow under the leg), anti-inflammatory medications, like ibuprofen, can help minimize pain and inflammation. The most important factor in preventing jumper's knee is stretching. A good warm-up regimen that involves stretching the quadriceps, hamstring, and calf muscles can help prevent jumper's knee.

14. What should i do, my 2 yr old swallowed a coin , i think a dime?

The dime may pass into the stools in a few days, but it is always safe to take the kid to the doctor, and probably an Xray would be helpful to make sure that the dime is not stuck anywhere along the gastro intestinal tract to cause an obstruction.

15. Hi i have slip my disc about 4 years ago. i have on going back pains mild all the time .the disc seems to slip at least once a year. when it does i can hardle work. i have to take time off work .is there any thing that can be done to stop this happening?.

With the condition of slipped disc, the disc does not actually slip out of place, but bulges out towards the spinal cord. The treatment typically involves a brief period of bed-rest with appropriate painkillers along with physiotherapy or chiropractic therapy should help. When there are changes or appearance of the new symptoms due to increasing pressure on the spinal cord or the nerves, surgical intervention needs to be considered. Reduction of the excess weight, strengthening abdominal and back muscles, proper habits such as, lifting techniques, how to walk without placing as much strain on your back etc. would help prevent slip disc.

1. Hello doctor, i am a sri lankan doing my second year of mbbs in bangladesh.i was having a swelling like thing on my left side neck for 3 weeks and suddenly it got increased in size and started paining.i consulted a doctor and he said that it is lyphadenitis and asked me to do all tests he gave.i din and the biopsy report says that thr is a possibility of koch's but it also says that there are large non non caseating epithelioid granulomata.and i took anti biotics for more than two weeks but the sweeling and painig is till there.so my doctor says it could be TB and i wil hav to start taking TB drugs immediately. but doctor i dont hav ny complications regarding TB.i hav no cough,no fever,no breathing problem.and the x-ray was also normal.and they did mantoux test for me and evn that was negative for me.please doctor could you please tell me wot the actual disease i have.because i really cant believe that i have TB.could you please wot this could be doctor?

Non caseating epitheloid granuloma is commonly associated with sarcoidosis - a disease in which swelling (inflammation) occurs in almost any organ of the body commonly affecting the lymph nodes or lungs. Possible causes of sarcoidosis include excess sensitivity to environmental factors, extreme immune response to infection or may be genetically associated. One may be asymptomatic or show symptoms related to the organ involved. Sarcoidosis symptoms often get better on their own gradually without treatment. Severe cases may require corticosteroids or immunosupressive therapy.

2. In my blood test find Hepatitis A virus IGM HAVM AB - Nonreactive but Hepatitis A virus HAV antibody is Reactive. sit, what i this condition and what i do for next step?

Hepatitis A IgM antibody is the first antibody produced by the body when it is exposed to hepatitis A. The hepatitis A IgM test is used to screen for early detection of infection and to diagnose the disease in patients with evidence of acute hepatitis. Your IgM AB being nonreactive or negative rules out any current hepatitis infection. HAV is the total antibody test (which detects both IgM and IgG antibodies) which means, it tests for both current and previous infection with hepatitis A. It will be positive after receiving the hepatitis A vaccine and may also be used to determine if you have produced antibodies and developed immunity in response to a hepatitis A vaccine or a previous hepatitis A infection. Thus HAV may commonly test reactive or positive if you received the hepatitis A vaccine or in case you have had a past hepatitis A infection, even if you were not aware of it. With your results tested as mentioned above you do not carry any active infection, but had a previous HAV exposure and has developed immunity to HAV. No further treatment may be required.

3. I'm a diabetic 2 and take medication in the morning and evening,if after taking medication (4 hrs later) my sugar goes up what can I do to bring it down again? may I take more medicine or is there something I can eat or drink?this does not happen often so I do not want to increase the strengh of the medication.

The food that you eat also plays a part in helping to lower blood sugar levels. Low-glycemic foods that are digested more slowly by the body are a better option.
You may keep a record of your sugar levels and try to note the types of food in your diet of that particular meal, that increased your sugars. You may then make necessary diet changes to control your sugars or may consider changes in your medications and its dosage schedule for better control.


4. I analyzed on the Hepatitis C a week ago. The answer was following : Hepatitis C-virus-RNA positive; Bilirubin total 0.6; ALT (GPT) 95; AST (GOT) 70; GGT 24. I also did Fibroscan and the result was 4.9.Blood examination and liver Doppler Ultrasound is according to the norm. I would like to know, what does these answers mean. Is this connected with the serious complications?

Your lab results indicate presence of Hepatitis C infection. Raised GGT along with abnormal or raised liver enzymes indicate liver damage. FibroScan values greater than 7.1 kPa are the cut-off level for significant fibrosis and thereby your result of 4.9 does not indicate fibrosis in the liver at this time. However you need to follow up regularly with your doctor and the tests to keep a check on the progression of the condition, the viral load and the development of cirrhosis. You may want to go for a quantitative HCV RNA test that measures the number of viral RNA particles in the blood for better assessment of your condition in terms of the viral load and the amount of infection.

5. I am 37 and I have had acne since I was 12. I stopped seeing a doctor 10 years ago because she said the only treatment option left for me was Accutane, but I did not want to take it due to cost and side affects. OTC treatments do not work. Is there any chance that my acne will ever go away on its own? Is it possible that I will still have acne when I retire?


Stress, bad cosmetics, hormones and birth control pills are some of the common causes of acne during this age. Stress and hormonal changes cause the sebaceous glands to overact and cause breakouts. Thus with the stabilisation of your hormones and reduction in stress levels alongwith a healthy diet and fat free foods would be beneficial for prevention of acne. Cleansers with benzoyl peroxide or salicylic acid may be used and do not exfoliate too much or scrub too hard. Also Over-the-counter creams and lotions usually take two weeks to work and need to be used continuously in order to remain effective. You may have to consider accutane or other drug options for the treatment if all other methods fail to clear your acne.

6.I took accutane for 3 months and now im on toriac I never had extremely bad cyctic acne. What are the chances my acne will come back?

Medications for acne reduce the oiliness of the skin, shrink the sebaceous glands thereby decreasing the sebum secretion and other problems that give rise to severe acne. However after completion of the treatment the sebaceous glands tend to grow back very very slowly and by the time, you may outgrow your tendency to acne with more stabilization of the hormonal and other factors that contribute to the formation of acne. Avoiding fat-laden junk foods and maintaining skin hygiene is important.
You may use a mild cleansing agent to wash down the entire face and regular shampooing of hair would decrease your chances of acne.

7. When I was 9 years old, I received the Varicella vaccine (one dose). I am now 23 years old, and I recently had a baby. While I was pregnant I found out my pediatrician never gave me the second dose and I am NOT immune to chicken pox. So after I had the baby, I went in to get the varicella vaccine. My question is do I need ANOTHER dose of the Varicella vaccine (since I heard adults need two doses 8 weeks apart) or is the one I received when I was 9, and the one I just receieved sufficient?

Varicella vaccine if received before the age of 12 years provide maximum immunity with one dose and the other dose is not required, unlike in older children who may require 2 doses of this vaccine to achieve the same maximum immunity. Also this is not recommended during pregnancy since it is a live attenuated vaccine that may result in possible harmful effects on fetal development. However you may take a second dose if you do not any evidence of immunity (had the disease or the vaccine), or in case of high risk or exposure to close contact.

8. While I engage in intercourse, not all the time, but only when I am extremely in the mood, while my boyfriend massages my breasts milk comes out. This only happens while I am extremely aroused and no other time. I have been on the pill for four years and I am positive that I am not pregnant. I did just switch my pill and I am also under constant stress with school and work and paying for school. I was wondering if this is something that I should be concerned about, or if it is something that just happens to some women. I am a full time student and have no health insurance, nor do I really want to pay for a real doctor appointment, so I go to the clinic for my birth control needs, so I do not want to make an appointment with a real doctor unless truly necessary. I hope that you are able to help me out. Thank you for your time.

Secretion of breast milk commonly occurs with vigorous breast massage and stimulation. It should not be a concern unless you notice other breast changes related with the milk secretion like a lump or any changes of the skin and breast movements.


9. My mom has been getting headaches everyday. She's been taking extra strength Tylenol to help relieve the pain. But it always comes back after the 4 hours are up. Anyways, before she was getting these headaches, she was on an aspirin regimen to thin out her blood and reduce blood clots. Now she is going to have surgery to have her thyroid glands taken out because it's causing her calcium levels to go up. Her doctor told her that she will need to stop taking aspirin at least two weeks before her surgery. So since now she isn't taking aspirin, she's been getting headaches. I know this because after one cancellation of her surgery, she had went back onto her aspirin regimen which made her headaches disappear! After the two week deadline finally came, she had to stop taking her aspirin. Now she's having the headaches and she can't stand them anymore. (On a side note, we took her to the doctor to have her checked out. They did a CT Scan on her head and found nothing wrong) She's thinking that it's her calcium that may be causing her headaches but I think it's her not taking the aspirin. Is this a rebound headache? Could her aspirin regimen be the cause of her headaches? Maybe her body thinks that it needs the aspirin.

Usually an aspirin regimen consists of a low dose aspirin and may not produce dependence to such an extent as to cause severe headaches. On the other hand calcium is known to produce severe symptoms even with slight increase in its levels. In other words, raised calcium levels may not corelate with the severity of the symptoms. Thus it is more likely for your mother’s symptoms to be due to her calcium levels, and her headache should be relieved after her surgery.

10. Over the last couple of years, I have been experiencing shortness of breath and heart palpatations. I looked this up on this website and it was answered with what I just told you. It also said that a main cause of these two conditions is anemia. I am anemic, and have taken suplements in the past to help. They do help, the only problem I have when taking the iron suplements is that they cause me become extremely constipated, to the point that I will stop taking them. I am curious if there is something I can take to help, or what you would recommend I do. Thank you

Although iron supplements are recommended for correction of anemia, you also need to concentrate on your diet with an increased supplementation of iron rich foods including lots of veggies and fruits, date, fig, spinach, cereals, grains, eggs, milk and meat. By supplementing with diet iron, you may be able to reduce the oral iron supplements, thereby reducing constipation. You may also try slow release forms of iron supplements to deal with the problem. However intake of 6 - 8 glasses of water and high fibre diet along with regular exercise would help reduce constipation.

11. Hi, My husband has been diagnosed of Diabetes , recently. I want to know that what is the ideal glaucous level for blood, when should we check glaucous level, Doctor has advised Glucopheb 500 mg and metobal 500 mg, Can he leave taking Glucopheb when glaucous level is normal ? his weight is 85KG, hieght is 5-5 , age 42


The timings and normal range for the blood sugar levels in diabetics is as below:
- Before breakfast or Fasting and Before meals, the normal range is 80 to 120 mg/dl or 4 to 7 mmol/l
- 2 hours after meals, should be less than or equal to 160 mg/dl or 5 to 10 mmol/l
It is not recommended to reduce or change the dosage of the prescribed diabetes medications because the type and the frequency of the dosage is usually titrated against your sugar levels to keep it within the recommended normal range. If you keep a record of your blood levels regularly and they seem to be well in control, you may discuss this with your doctor for changes in the medications under his supervision.

12. I want to stop smoking.is there any drug which can help me.i am smoking since 15 years and i want to leave it.is there a chance that my lungs become 100% effective after quiting smoking.


There are many proven ways to quit smoking including the nicotine patch, gum, lozenge or inhaler, used to replace some of the nicotine you usually get from cigarettes. This can make nicotine withdrawal easier to manage. Drugs like bupropion and varenicline tartrate reduce your craving to smoke, and make smoking less enjoyable thus making it easier to quit. With a strong determination and support from family and friends it would be easier for you to successfully quit smoking. You may also go for expert counseling and join support groups for help. Reversing of the physical damage sustained over 15 years can begin as soon as smoking ends. However it may take up to 15 years after quitting, for your risks (diseases of the lung, heart and cancer) to drop to normal and lead a healthy life as a normal man who has never smoked.


14. I have question By accident I took 2 Allegra pills, I only suppose to take one every 24 hrs, the pill is 180mg can you tell me if this bad that I overdose by accident what should I do, Thank you. Avelino Ortiz


Ingestion of 2 pills of allegra on one occassion may not be harmful, but it would be safe to visit your doctor or the emergency if you feel any symptoms like dry mouth, dizziness or drowsiness.

15. I found out that I have bacterial vaginosis, and my doctor gave me an antibiotic that worked. Now, a month later, I think I have it again because of the odor. Do I have to put up with this for the rest of my life? Why is this happening?

Did you complete the full course of prescribed antibiotics? Because if you did’nt the infection may not have cleared entirely and it would more likely reappear. Also do not douche, limit the number of sexual partners, maintain good hygiene and sexual health for the prevention of recurrent infection. Usually following proper antibiotics the infection is cured and if it you get the symptoms again it is possibly due to a new infection with bacterial vaginosis.

13. What is the common causes of H. Pylori?

The H. pylori bacterium is especially well-adapted for survival in the stomach acid. The bacteria enters your body through mouth and is most likely acquired by ingesting contaminated food and water and through person to person contact. The infection is more common in crowded living conditions with poor sanitation.
1. Ok, so my dad and I got into an argument and after, i tried to explain to my boyfriend what happened, and he is upset because i can't come over to his house today. whenever i know that people are mad at me or disappointed in me, i feel like hurting myself and if i do end up actually doing it, i feel like i deserve it, and after im done, i feel fine. my question is how do i stop feeling like this and cccc?
Age: 13-18 years
Sex: Female




Current Medication: citalopram 20mg lamictal 100mg
Medical History: i had an aunt who tried to kill herself a few times




You should try to keep yourself occupied during these difficult times by doing something that will take your mind off whatever is upsetting you. This can be anything like doing housework, go for a walk , have a shower, hit a cushion !! If you do this then you should be able to calm yourself down. You may also take a few deep breaths and go for a quick short run just to calm yourself down. Routine practice of meditation and yoga can help boost your confidence. If this does not seem to work, you may also opt for a psychotherapy or behaviour therapy, that may help you deal with such situations.


2. Hi i had h pylori and took the medication and now i tested negative that has been 6 months ago now i still get bloated headache short breath dizzy and very nauseous and anxiety which i never had before till i had the bacteria what can it be??? i also have asthma but i haven't had an attack for the past two years but im constantly out of breath please help!!

Age: 19-25 years
Sex: Female


Current Medication: traxil for anxiety
Known Allergies: none
Medical History: asthma, high cholesterol and was born with a whole in my heart



Most H. Pylori infections are usually cured after the successful completion of the treatment. However rarely, occur uptthe infection may recur upto 1 year after the completion of the treatment in some cases. You may want to get tested for the reinfection, and once it has been ruled out you may also consult your GP for an evaluation of your heart health, because your sym,ptoms of headache, dizziness and short breath may be associated with your heart health.

3. My question is, I have been having a really heavy hemraging with clots period for 3 plus months straight.. every time i lift something or cough etc.. it flows right out and i fill a nighttime pad. i had a 2 day break but spotted those 2 days. before this started my period would be late at times but it was always 6 days long then stop on 6th day. i know im not pregnant, i had my tubes tied after i had a c section with my now 7 year old, and have not had intercourse in about 14 months. i have not been to an obgyn only because my insurance was canceled, and i am now waiting for it to kick in again. what do you think this is and should i wait for insurance or should i go to er soon?

I would recommend a visit to the ER, since you have been bleeding for 3 months straight, and the bleeding needs to be controlled else it would make you severely anemic and may cause other health problems due to blood loss. The cause of the bleed needs to be investigated in detail through gynecologic examination and ultrasound, blood tests and if necessary other investigative procedures may follow. It may be due to fibroid, polyp, endometriosis or polycyctic ovarian disease or a tumour.


4. My last period was early Janurary and still havent had a period, im 17 and im not sexual activte with a partner, but i have done masturbation. I just want to know what is delaying my period, is stress, weight, diet, or what.

Menstrual cylcle is controlled by the sex hormone secretions in the body, and there is a delicate balance that maintains the regularity and the flow of the menstrual cycle. So any kind of physical or mental stress, changes in the weight, extreme exercise, poor nutrition, anemia etc can cause in delay in the periods. A healthy diet and avoidance of stress by following meditation, yoga and other relaxation techniques would help regularize your periods.

5. I am a new grad homecare LPN asked to see a friends stubborn grandfather on the side as she is worried about him. After seeing him he still refuses to see a physician so I was wondering if there is anything you would recommend for this man. I did a bit of a systems review and a physical assessment as I had my homecare bag with me. He is previously a 60pack year smoker, but in the last few years he has not been interested, he told me he was told years ago that he was a diabetic but never put on medication. This man has not been to a doctor in over 10 years he is in his 80s now. Morning cough with white to yellow phlegm and occasional daytime cough with phlegm. Sleeps with 2 to 3 pillows and does not wake short of breath. He does not ambulate enough to become short of breath. He denies chest pain. He has swollen feet. Up 2 to 3 times during the night to void. Denies daytime frequency or difficulty passing urine. BP 112 62. P 100 bpm regular. BMI 23. O2 sat 96 percent. Random blood sugar is 6.8 mmol JVP is visible at 4 cm above the sternal angle Fine bilateral basilar crackles and no wheezes. Lower legs have 2 plus edema to mid anterior tibia bilateral. Feet and lower legs have rubra to mid tibia. Skin is shiny and dry, but intact. Cap refill is slow. Pulses are present at DP and PT bilaterally He does not eat well just nibbles at bread and drinks generally 750 mls of red wine per day. There are many other issues with this man but I was wondering if you could tell me what sort of treatment he would need and if this infact sounds like CHF and maybe a chronic bronchitis with the cough. Does he need to be on medication. If so what kind? I just want to bring some information to his granddaughter and unfortunately I do not have the expertise

Your friend’s grandfather may have developed right heart failure, smoking may be one of the causative factors. The overall goals of treatment are to correct underlying causes, to relieve symptoms, and to prevent worsening of the condition by removing the excess fluid from the body, improving blood flow, improving heart muscle function, and increasing delivery of oxygen to the body tissues. A reduced-salt diet and elevation of the feet and legs may help to reduce the edema. He should avoid any stress, alcohol, extreme emotional reactions and depression. There are several different medications that work in different ways to lessen heart failure symptoms, to prevent worsening of the underlying disease, and to prolong life like ace inhibitors, diuretics, digoxin, beta blockers, nitrates, hydralazine. Other options are pacemakers, implantable defibrillators and surgery, but once the heart's ability to pump blood is severely, permanently, and irreversibly impaired, no surgery can repair the damage. The only alternative is a heart transplant and this option too is for patients who are not elderly and who do not have other medical conditions that would make it unlikely for a heart transplant to be successful. In all a personalised treatment protocol needs to be developed by the doctor in each case based on the age and stage of the disease for maximum benefits.


6. Hi, I am Mandi. For the past couple of weeks I have been having period like cramps, fatigue, headache, and today I have been feeling sick to my stomach and vomited twice. My period is late 5 days and I have had 3 negative pregnancy tests. Any advise on what this could be?

In my opinion you should consult your family doctor or a gynecologist if possible, to rule out the possibility of tubal or ectopic pregnancy, means implantation occurs in the tube and not in the uterus. As the embryo develops, it becomes too large for the small space inside the fallopian tube. If the embryo continues to grow, the tube eventually ruptures, causing severe internal bleeding. You would need an ultrasound examination of the pelvis to find out if that is the case, and need to be treated accordingly as soon as possible.


7. I am currently on cholesterol medication called Adco Simvastatin 40mg, I know that falling prengant whilst on this medication is bad for the foetus, but I want to know if i go off the medication how long will it take to work it's way out of my body and when can I start rying to have a baby? I have been on 20 mg since July 2010 and in in the last month I have been taking 40mg.

It may take upto 3 to 4 days for the effects of the medication to wear off.
You may want to speak with your doctor who prescribed the adco simvastatin, and let him/her know you will be trying to conceive. He or she may want to address any underlying issues you may have (heart problems, etc.) before you get pregnant, and may advice you to slowly reduce the dosage of the drug and also that it may or may not be safe for you to get pregnant at this time.


8. Good day, I have for year now been strugling with pains in my chest which is related to GAS (I assume) I can feel it ease up sometime when I pass gas or when I move and kind of force the gas to release. I also get the tingling sensation in my arm and fingers on the left hand side. Although I have had this for about 2 - 3 years I still have a fright sometimes as it is so bad and really feels like I am having a heart attack. This morning I woke up from pain, i could not lie on my side as the pain was to severe. If i breathed out it would hurt the most, also when I would turn my body or lift my arm it would feel like I was getting a spasm. It is now a few hours since I have woken up and i still have the pain, not as bad when I sit but worse when I stand up. First time that I am feeling it like this, I fell like I wanna burp but like its blocked and nothing is happening. Please advise if you have any suggestions what this might be. I am 29 and live a very healthy lifestyle.

It could be gastro esophageal reflux disease (GERD), which is capable of producing the symptoms similar to an heart attack, including severe spasms and radiation to the left hand. Another reason could be a sliding hiatal hernia, that usually does not produce symptoms except heart burn, but in case it gets obstructed etc. You may want to consult a gastroenterologist for an accurate diagnosis with your symptoms and relevant investigations and treatment. You may try taking antacids like zantac, prilosec, gaviscon, gas-x, peptobismol etc. for relief.


9. I have paronychia and have had it for several days, i have been put on antibiotics but they dont seem to be working. My finger is extremely swollen and bright red,im guessing that the infection has spread because my entire finger is now swollen. i also have puss coming out of my finger nail but despite all this i was simply put on antibiotics, do you think i should return to the hospital for a second opinion?

The pus that has started to come out needs to be drained effectively and cleaned, at this stage, so in my opinion you should visit the hospital for treatment and prevention of the spread of infection.


10. Hi there can i drive with sps epilepsey i have never blacked out, ive been tread for depression for 13 years thats what my gp thought i had

You must check with the appropriate licensing authority. Most licensing departments do not allow driving of vehicles by persons until they have been seizure-free for a specified period of time, usually 3 months to 1 year.




1. I weigh 105lbs, I'm 5ft 6, and my bmi is 16.8. Eversince I was 14, I've been up and down weights. I've always had a problem with my body image, and always thought I was fat. I started stopping eating breakfast and recently lunch and snacks. Now the thought of puttting on weight absolutly terrifies me. I weigh myself 3 times a day, I measure myself a lot, and I stand in the mirror about 10 times aday telling myself I'm fat and pulling at it. When my parents make me eat, I throw it up. The maximum I eat is 600 calories. Everynight I go to my gym in the garden, and burn it all off, even if it gets late I HAVE TO. Most of the time I burn off more than I've eaten. And now I sometimes get really shakey, cold, pass out, bloated, stomach aches and cramp. Everyone tells me I have a problem, do I?

Your BMI, height and weight indicates that you are underweight, and based on the description mentioned above, you seem to suffer from anorexia nervosa. The symptoms you have started to experience, also seem to be due to improper diet and reduced energy in your body. You should consult your doctor or a psychologist for counselling and management of your obsession and eating disorder.

2. Please help me i am a 44 year old mother of 4 children and for the last 8 months i have been experiencing very very heavy periods with blood clots and cramps i am starting to worry can you help me please
ge: 36-45 years
Sex: Female





Current Medication: ,birth control pills,blood pressure medicine



You need to see a gynecologist at the earliest for the diagnosis of the underlying condition and control of heavy bleeding to prevent further complications related to severe blood loss. In my opinion, you may have a uterine fibroid, that may cause heavy bleeding with clots and cramps. Your doctor may order pelvic ultrasound examination for the diagnosis of the cause and accurate treatment.

3. For the past six months I am facing problems while consuming any milk products. I get burps for an hour when I take them. When it is consumed in empty stomach, I get irritation in chest and then followed by burps. When taken in full stomach, I just get burps. I consulted a Gastroenterologist and he prescribed me Ganaton and Motilium tablets. I took them before breakfast and dinner for 10 days but it didn't work out. What could be the problem?

You may have lactose intolerance. Lactose intolerance can start suddenly, even if you never had trouble with dairy products or other foods containing lactose. You may try a lactose free diet for few days and than re introduce lactose foods, and note if you develop symptoms again. You may also see a dietitian for better diet plans to manage your symptoms.

4. Does a 36 years old women having secondary Hypothalamic Amonarrhea a result of at the age of 11 years had anorexia Nervosa is married and has a nice family of kids wants to know if need to bring out cycles healthwise. I wonder if leptin is a suggested treatment when infertility is not the question.
Age: 36-45 years
Sex: Female



Current Medication: not taking any medioations
Known Allergies: no allergies
Medical History: hypothalamic amonarrhea



If left untreated, secondary hypothalamic amenorrhea may lead to other health problems like osteoporosis, heart disease, uterine cancer etc. If you do not wish to become pregnant, it is still important to seek medical treatment for your condition. Studies have suggested leptin to be useful for the treatment of hypothalamic amenorrhea, but it would be best to consult your gynecologist for the treatment options available in your case. However weight management, avoidance of excessive stress and exercise may help treat amenorrhea.

5. Can atrial fibrillation be detected with an ultrasound test?.

Ultrasound may help detect arrhythmias, but best would be an EKG that records the altered heart rythym for accurate diagnosis. However ultrasound is useful for the assessment of the underlying heart and valve conditions along with the heart rhythm. Ambulatory ultrasound may be useful to detect occasional fibrillation that may be missed with one time EKG.

6. I had sex a week ago, and the condom broke from very vigorous sex. I know I can't go off just her word, but she said she was std free. A couple days ago i noticed about 6 little red bumps on the upper right side of my pubic area, on my inner thigh. Each one was at the base of a hair follicle, but none of them itched or hurt. The next day i looked at them and 2 of them had turned into water blisters about a quarter inch in diameter, but the other ones had disappeared. I being dumb. popped and drained them, and now they are covered by a thin scab. this was a day or tow ago. Today I noticed a small, maybe 3 mm wide blister on the head of my penis. Everything I've looked at points to herpes, and I am wondering if there could be any other possible explanantion. Of course I'm going to be tested, but was wondering if herpes could be the only thing it could be. Thank you
Age: 19-25 years
Sex: Male



Current Medication: none
Known Allergies: imoxcicillin



From the description mentioned above, there seems to be a high possibility of the genital herpes lesion, and water blister lesions are commonly associated with genital herpes and none other STD’s. Symptoms of herpes usually appear 2 to 7 days after first exposure to the virus.

7. Hi there, Firstly I would like to thank you for your time and it is very kind of you to provide advice online and I am certain that everybody is so glad you are here to help. :) My girlfriend had septic shock in April 2010 due to bacteria entering her blood stream. The source was never clear. During sepsis her body started to shut down and several doctors worked on her. She became more stable the next day and was put on many types of AB and a breathing machine. She seemed to recover well and till today she seem reasonably healthy. However around a couple of month ago her thumb started twitching. We brushed this off because she had a cut on her wrist the year before from a chipped glass as a window shattered when she tried to open it. This glass caused much bleeding and it may have damaged her nerve for her thumb because parts of the thumb became somewhat numb. Then the worry began as her other fingers also started twitching. At times she cannot hold her drink bottle still without trembling when she is filling it up at the gym. She also mentioned her hands tremble at times during lectures. She feels that her muscles are getting smaller and is worried she may have some neurological disorder. On a side note, she is losing some hair however not to the extent of balding. Although this may all be in her head or due to stress, my question is, can septic shock survivors have after effects on their nervous system? Perhaps due to their body shutting down during sepsis or the over 40 degrees fever damaging something? Thanks again in advanced :)

Septic shock is a serious condition that occurs when an overwhelming infection leads to life-threatening low blood pressure and decreased oxygen supply to the vital organs including brain. Recovery from septic shock depends on how early the treatment was sought and initiated, as well as the extent of damage (reversible or irreversible) to the vital organs. Thus there may be a possibility of neurological damage due to oxygen deprivation, low blood pressure and high temperature. It would be best to see a neurologist before worsening of the symptoms and sought for an early treatment.

8. My father has been in chronic back pain for six weeks. He has seen chiropractors, neurologists, orthopedists, etc... At first they told him it was a herniated disc. They then said it was a bone spur and now they are saying it may have nothing to do with his back but may be the result of an infection somewhere else in his body. He has been on pain killers and they help for a little while but he is still in the same amount of pain as day one. If it is an infection can't they just give him antibiotics to kill the infection? I just want the pain to go away. Any suggestions?

If, according to your doctor, the pain is due to infection somewhere in the body, the site of primary infection needs to be identified and if it is not possible to find the primary site of infection, empiric antibiotic treatment is recommended to prevent further spread of infection. Also if your father has already got different tests done and the underlying cause of the back pain still remains unidentified, he may try anti inflammatory medication like ibuprofen and visit a physiotherapist for gradual stretching and exercise of the back muscles. Hot or cold compress may also help.

9. I have interstitial cystitis. I also take Wellbutrin for depression and anxiety. I have started experiencing extreme exhaustion and headaches. The Wellbutrin doesn't seem to work anymore. Would it be benificial to try Elavil? I've heard it helps both IC and depression and anxiety as well as headaches.
Age: 36-45 years
Sex: Female



Current Medication: Wellbutrin, Xanax, Prosed



Elavil is in a group of drugs called tricyclic antidepressants. There could be significant drug interactions of elavil with your current medications and so it is recommended to talk to your doctor before trying this medication. There may be respiratory depression, seizures, blurred vision, urine retention etc. Best would be to work together with your doctor for suitable treatment with minimum side effects for your depression and anxiety.

10. Good day doctors, My Laryngeal prominence has moved off centre about 15-20mm to the right. I noticed it around a week ago and compared some old videos and photos to double check. It has definitely moved. I feel no discomfort and have no other symptoms. It is around the same size as before but just off centre. when I swallow I can see it move up and down my trachea. The other visible lumps further down my trachea are in their normal position as I can see when I swallow. What could this indicate?

Based on your description of the neck swelling, it seems to be a thyroglossal duct cyst which is a form of congenital neck cyst. It is formed in the intact Thyroglossal tract, which is the tract formed with the migration of the thyroid gland to its normal position during embryonic life. Your doctor may examine the swelling and if required may refer you to a surgeon for the surgical removal of the cyst. You may need antibiotics if the cyst is infected and associated with symptoms like pain, temperature, difficulty swallowing etc.

11. Is it ok to go on a rollercoaster when 5 weeks pregnant?

It is not recommended to go on a roller coaster at any time of pregnancy, because of the rapid starts and stops along with jarring that occurs during the ride. This rigorous activity and jarring may lead to premature separation of the placenta from the wall of the uterus. Although chances of placental effects are very less during early pregnancy, as in your case, it is always safe to avoid the roller coaster rides during pregnancy.

12. I have been prescriped valium for around 30 yees now my doctro has stopped and switched me to xananax will i have withdrawls from valium im scared
Age: 56-65 years
Sex: Female



Current Medication: anxiety and panic disorder was taking valium dr.stopped prescribing now has prescribed xanax, will i have wirhdrawls from the valium, im scare
Known Allergies: sulfa




Your doctor may have switched your medication to an equivalent dose of xanax, as compared to valium, in order to avoid any withdrawal reactions. This equivalent dose is supposed to be 1mg of xanax for 20mg of valium.
If you choose to stop taking the medication completely, you need to slowly taper off the dose to avoid any unpleasant withdrawal symptoms.

13. I have hepatitis C. In 1999, I took interferon, but it didn't work. I also developed hyperthyroid problems during treatment that were brought under control. The hyperthyroid recurred a few years later, but was again brought under control. After the interferon, my LFT's (ALT,AST) went normal and stayed normal, but my viral load stayed high and still is. I need to tell you, although I know it's advised against, I do drink beer,moderately on weekends. 2 biopsies (1999 and 2007) have shown minimal damage to my liver. Last year I was diagnosed with ulcerative colitis and ended up taking Lialda daily along with a Canasa suppository every 3rd day to control it. That has worked well. In March of this year, I had a physical. The LFT's were elevated (222ALT,162AST). They were repeated a week later to make sure (288ALT,190AST). I saw my gastroenterologist and partly because I told him that I had read the Lialda could cause liver problems, he had me stop the Lialda and it was followed up with tests 2 weeks later (452ALT, 260AST). Based on that they were still rising, he said to try stopping any vitamins, supplements and beer. So I've done that and will see where that goes in a couple of weeks. In looking around on the internet, I read that UC can cause elevated LFT's. I did have bloodtests to diagnose the UC, but gven that I didn't have any blood work done from the time I started the Lialda to the March bloodtest, it's possible that the tests have been elevated for some time, but the fact that I stopped the Lialda and they didn't go down leads me to think it's not the Lialda and if what I read is correct, that it's just because I have UC. I feel pretty healthy and exercise regularly and eat well most of the time. I suppose I'm looking for other professional opinions about what's going on with me, my auto-immune system and what can I do about it. Thanks in advance for your replies.

In my opinion you need to re evaluate your status of liver function, viral load and cirrhosis, for an assessment of liver damage, which might explain the elevated LFT’s. Ulcerative colitis may not affect liver function directly, but medications used for the treatment of UC may cause liver damage if the dose is not adjusted according to the decreased liver function. You also need to stop taking alcohol completely in order to prevent further damage. You may go for a fibroscan or a second opinion for an assessment of the liver condition.

14. I have had a mitral valve repair in 2004. lately the palpitations and skipping has been getting more frequent. i went to my cardiologist and she has had some test done. i was told after the surgery that a repair would only last approximatly 5 to 6 years. is this true?

The repair of the mitral valve may last up to 10 years or more depending on your heart and valve condition at the time of surgery, your age, presence of any infection etc. As you have already done some tests, your doctor may be the best person to answer your queries from your test results.

15. It is the vein that is behind my knee...I don't know why but i do have a few theories... I have been exercising the past two months and i do admit that i do not stretch as much as i should. So maybe it could be for that reason? And i take vitamins daily: Multi Vitamin, Calcium, Vitamin C, Flaxseed oil, Fish oil, Vitamin E and on the days i work out ill take a Green Tea Extract or a Super B Complex. Maybe I am getting too much of something? Or I have a Tumor... Can someone please help me and tell me what it could possibly be? I put a link of a leg with the major veins below so you can check it out...I'm not sure which vein it is. And i think it was a couple of days ago that i hit my left foot on my porch door pretty hard. The pain went away in like 5 minutes though and i don't feel any pain right now so idk... I have been keeping my leg on a heating pad...The vein feels a bit weird I uploaded an edited picture that shows in black were the vein is
There seems to be a possibility of varicose vein in your leg. Varicosity is the thickened, twisted or dilated parts of the vein, which is usually not associated with any symptoms, unless it gets infected or painful. In normal veins, valves in the vein keep blood moving forward toward the heart. With varicose veins, the valves do not function properly, allowing blood to remain in the vein. Pooling of blood in a vein causes it to enlarge.Standing for a long time and having increased pressure in the abdomen, pregnancy, thrombophlebitis or defective vein valves from birth may make you more likely to develop varicose veins. To reduce the varicosity, you need to avoid excessive standing, raise your legs when resting or sleeping, and wear elastic support hose. If the condition becomes worse you may consult a surgeon for the available treatment options which include sclerotherapy, laser ablation, radio-frequency ablation or surgical removal of the varicose veins.